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Review

Spherical Cellulose Micro and Nanoparticles: A Review of Recent Developments and Applications

Department of Chemistry, CICECO—Aveiro Institute of Materials, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Erwann Guénin and Endarto Wardhono
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(10), 2744; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11102744
Received: 20 September 2021 / Revised: 7 October 2021 / Accepted: 9 October 2021 / Published: 17 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles from Natural Polymers: Synthesis and Applications)
Cellulose, the most abundant natural polymer, is a versatile polysaccharide that is being exploited to manufacture innovative blends, composites, and hybrid materials in the form of membranes, films, coatings, hydrogels, and foams, as well as particles at the micro and nano scales. The application fields of cellulose micro and nanoparticles run the gamut from medicine, biology, and environment to electronics and energy. In fact, the number of studies dealing with sphere-shaped micro and nanoparticles based exclusively on cellulose (or its derivatives) or cellulose in combination with other molecules and macromolecules has been steadily increasing in the last five years. Hence, there is a clear need for an up-to-date narrative that gathers the latest advances on this research topic. So, the aim of this review is to portray some of the most recent and relevant developments on the use of cellulose to produce spherical micro- and nano-sized particles. An attempt was made to illustrate the present state of affairs in terms of the go-to strategies (e.g., emulsification processes, nanoprecipitation, microfluidics, and other assembly approaches) for the generation of sphere-shaped particles of cellulose and derivatives thereof. A concise description of the application fields of these cellulose-based spherical micro and nanoparticles is also presented. View Full-Text
Keywords: cellulose; cellulose derivatives; sphere-shaped particles; microparticles; nanoparticles; particle manufacturing; emulsification; microfluidics; nanoprecipitation cellulose; cellulose derivatives; sphere-shaped particles; microparticles; nanoparticles; particle manufacturing; emulsification; microfluidics; nanoprecipitation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Carvalho, J.P.F.; Silva, A.C.Q.; Silvestre, A.J.D.; Freire, C.S.R.; Vilela, C. Spherical Cellulose Micro and Nanoparticles: A Review of Recent Developments and Applications. Nanomaterials 2021, 11, 2744. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11102744

AMA Style

Carvalho JPF, Silva ACQ, Silvestre AJD, Freire CSR, Vilela C. Spherical Cellulose Micro and Nanoparticles: A Review of Recent Developments and Applications. Nanomaterials. 2021; 11(10):2744. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11102744

Chicago/Turabian Style

Carvalho, João P.F., Ana C.Q. Silva, Armando J.D. Silvestre, Carmen S.R. Freire, and Carla Vilela. 2021. "Spherical Cellulose Micro and Nanoparticles: A Review of Recent Developments and Applications" Nanomaterials 11, no. 10: 2744. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11102744

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