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Article

Chitosan Nanoparticles as a Promising Nanomaterial for Encapsulation of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Peel Extract as a Natural Source of Antioxidants

1
Department of Food Science, College of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 5166616471, Iran
2
Drug Applied Research Center and Student Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 5165665811, Iran
3
Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, Rúa Galicia N°4, Parque Tecnológico de Galicia, San Cibrao das Viñas, 32900 Ourense, Spain
4
Área de Tecnología de los Alimentos, Facultad de Ciencias de Ourense, Universidad de Vigo, 32004 Ourense, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alicia Rodríguez-Gascón
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(6), 1439; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11061439
Received: 29 April 2021 / Revised: 23 May 2021 / Accepted: 24 May 2021 / Published: 29 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles from Natural Polymers: Synthesis and Applications)
The encapsulation of pomegranate peel extract (PPE) in chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) is an advantageous strategy to protect sensitive constituents of the extract. This study was aimed to develop PPE-loaded CSNPs and characterize their physical, structural morphology, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Spherical NPs were successfully synthesized with a mean diameter of 174–898 nm, a zeta potential (ZP) of +3 – +36 mV, an encapsulation efficiency (EE) of 26–70%, and a loading capacity (LC) of 14–21% depending on their loaded extract concentrations. Based on these results, CSNPs with chitosan:PPE ratio of 1:0.50 (w/w) exhibited good physical stability (ZP = 27 mV), the highest loading (LC = 20%) and desirable encapsulation efficiency (EE = 51%), and thus, selected as optimally loaded NPs. The FTIR analysis of PPE-CSNPs demonstrated no spectral changes indicating no possible chemical interaction between the PPE and CSNPs, which confirms that the PPE was physically entrapped within NPs. Moreover, FTIR spectra of pure PPE showed specific absorption bands (at 3293–3450 cm−1) attributed to the incidence of phenolic compounds, such as tannic acid, ellagic acid and gallic acid. Total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant analysis of selected CSNPs revealed that the encapsulated NPs had significantly lower TPC and antioxidant activity than those of pure PPE, indicating that CSNPs successfully preserved PPE from rapid release during the measurements. Antibacterial tests indicated that pure PPE and PPE-loaded CSNPs effectively retarded the growth of Gram-positive S. aureus with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.27 and 1.1 mg/mL, respectively. Whereas Gram-negative E. coli, due to its protective cell membrane, was not retarded by pure PPE and PPE-CSNPs at the MIC values tested in this study. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis confirmed the incidence of various phytochemicals, including phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and furfurals, with possible antioxidant or antimicrobial properties. Overall, CSNPs can be regarded as suitable nanomaterials for the protection and controlled delivery of natural antioxidants/antimicrobials, such as PPE in food packaging applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: pomegranate peel; nanocarrier; particles; nanostructure; bioactive compounds; properties pomegranate peel; nanocarrier; particles; nanostructure; bioactive compounds; properties
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MDPI and ACS Style

Soltanzadeh, M.; Peighambardoust, S.H.; Ghanbarzadeh, B.; Mohammadi, M.; Lorenzo, J.M. Chitosan Nanoparticles as a Promising Nanomaterial for Encapsulation of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Peel Extract as a Natural Source of Antioxidants. Nanomaterials 2021, 11, 1439. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11061439

AMA Style

Soltanzadeh M, Peighambardoust SH, Ghanbarzadeh B, Mohammadi M, Lorenzo JM. Chitosan Nanoparticles as a Promising Nanomaterial for Encapsulation of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Peel Extract as a Natural Source of Antioxidants. Nanomaterials. 2021; 11(6):1439. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11061439

Chicago/Turabian Style

Soltanzadeh, Maral, Seyed H. Peighambardoust, Babak Ghanbarzadeh, Maryam Mohammadi, and José M. Lorenzo. 2021. "Chitosan Nanoparticles as a Promising Nanomaterial for Encapsulation of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Peel Extract as a Natural Source of Antioxidants" Nanomaterials 11, no. 6: 1439. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11061439

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