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Biomaterials, Current Strategies, and Novel Nano-Technological Approaches for Periodontal Regeneration

1
Nobil Bio Ricerche Srl, 14037 Portacomaro d’Asti, Italy
2
Department of Modern Sciences and Technologies, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad 917794-8564, Iran
3
Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Funct. Biomater. 2019, 10(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb10010003
Received: 27 October 2018 / Revised: 7 December 2018 / Accepted: 17 December 2018 / Published: 2 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Nanobiomaterials)
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PDF [4388 KB, uploaded 2 January 2019]
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Abstract

Periodontal diseases involve injuries to the supporting structures of the tooth and, if left untreated, can lead to the loss of the tooth. Regenerative periodontal therapies aim, ideally, at healing all the damaged periodontal tissues and represent a significant clinical and societal challenge for the current ageing population. This review provides a picture of the currently-used biomaterials for periodontal regeneration, including natural and synthetic polymers, bioceramics (e.g., calcium phosphates and bioactive glasses), and composites. Bioactive materials aim at promoting the regeneration of new healthy tissue. Polymers are often used as barrier materials in guided tissue regeneration strategies and are suitable both to exclude epithelial down-growth and to allow periodontal ligament and alveolar bone cells to repopulate the defect. The problems related to the barrier postoperative collapse can be solved by using a combination of polymeric membranes and grafting materials. Advantages and drawbacks associated with the incorporation of growth factors and nanomaterials in periodontal scaffolds are also discussed, along with the development of multifunctional and multilayer implants. Tissue-engineering strategies based on functionally-graded scaffolds are expected to play an ever-increasing role in the management of periodontal defects. View Full-Text
Keywords: dental materials; periodontal tissue engineering; dental implants; bioceramics; polymers; composites; bioactivity; nanotechnology; nanomaterials dental materials; periodontal tissue engineering; dental implants; bioceramics; polymers; composites; bioactivity; nanotechnology; nanomaterials
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Iviglia, G.; Kargozar, S.; Baino, F. Biomaterials, Current Strategies, and Novel Nano-Technological Approaches for Periodontal Regeneration. J. Funct. Biomater. 2019, 10, 3.

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