Next Article in Journal
ARTD10/PARP10 Induces ADP-Ribosylation of GAPDH and Recruits GAPDH into Cytosolic Membrane-Free Cell Bodies When Overexpressed in Mammalian Cells
Previous Article in Journal
Value Engineering and Function Analysis: Frameworks for Innovation in Antenna Systems
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessConcept Paper
Challenges 2018, 9(1), 21;

Cybernetics and the 4D Smart City: Smartness as Awareness

School of Architecture, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 23 April 2018 / Accepted: 23 April 2018 / Published: 27 April 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [821 KB, uploaded 3 May 2018]   |  


The complexity of urban challenges obliges us to seek smarter paths for urban development and increase our awareness of urban dynamics in a more holistic manner. Stemming from the discipline of architecture and urban planning, this concept paper outlines an idea of a cybernetic urban management for anticipatory governance of smart cities. A cybernetic system absorbs information from different sources, such as buildings that are aware of their energy efficiency, a city aware of its traffic flows, and citizens who are aware of the affordances of urban life. Defined as context-aware cyber-physical social systems, smart cities of the future are planned and managed with increasing awareness of the manifoldness of physical, experiential, and virtual life. The benefits of a cybernetic urban management could, for instance, be related to dynamic service network planning with a real-time view to service network efficiency. This in turn could lead to better services for citizens, resource efficiency, and better allocation of financial resources. Cybernetic management and smart city production necessitates a shared view of urban processes that is not dedicated only for the eyes of a few experts but is widely accessible and supports information exchange and dialogue among city authorities, decision-makers, and citizens. View Full-Text
Keywords: smart cities; urban planning and design; cybernetics; urban experiences; north smart cities; urban planning and design; cybernetics; urban experiences; north

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Rönkkö, E.; Herneoja, A.; Oikarinen, E. Cybernetics and the 4D Smart City: Smartness as Awareness. Challenges 2018, 9, 21.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Challenges EISSN 2078-1547 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top