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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview

Key Aspects in Nutritional Management of COVID-19 Patients

1
Nutrition and Obesity Group, Department of Pharmacy and Food Science, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU) and Lucio Lascaray Research Institute, 01006 Vitoria, Spain
2
CIBEROBN Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition, Institute of Health Carlos III, 01006 Vitoria, Spain
3
Bioaraba Health Research Institute, 01009 Vitoria, Spain
4
Basque Health Service (Osakidetza), Integrated Health Care Organization Araba, 01009 Álava, Spain
5
Nutrition and Food Science Department, Faculty of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences, National University of Litoral and National Scientific and Technical Research Council (CONICET), Santa Fe 3000, Argentina
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(8), 2589; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9082589
Received: 30 June 2020 / Revised: 6 August 2020 / Accepted: 7 August 2020 / Published: 10 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: From Pathophysiology to Clinical Practice)
This review deals with the relationship among nutrition, the immune system, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The influence of nutrients and bioactive molecules present in foodstuffs on immune system activity, the influence of COVID-19 on the nutritional status of the patients, and the dietary recommendations for hospitalized patients are addressed. Deficient nutritional status is probably due to anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hypoalbuminemia, hypermetabolism, and excessive nitrogen loss. There is limited knowledge regarding the nutritional support during hospital stay of COVID-19 patients. However, nutritional therapy appears as first-line treatment and should be implemented into standard practice. Optimal intake of all nutrients, mainly those playing crucial roles in immune system, should be assured through a diverse and well-balanced diet. Nevertheless, in order to reduce the risk and consequences of infections, the intakes for some micronutrients may exceed the recommended dietary allowances since infections and other stressors can reduce micronutrient status. In the case of critically ill patients, recently published guidelines are available for their nutritional management. Further, several natural bioactive compounds interact with the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, the gateway for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Natural bioactive compounds can also reduce the inflammatory response induced by SARS-CoV-2. These compounds are potential beneficial tools in the nutritional management of COVID-19 patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; nutrition; malnutrition; nutritional support; bioactive compounds COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; nutrition; malnutrition; nutritional support; bioactive compounds
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fernández-Quintela, A.; Milton-Laskibar, I.; Trepiana, J.; Gómez-Zorita, S.; Kajarabille, N.; Léniz, A.; González, M.; Portillo, M.P. Key Aspects in Nutritional Management of COVID-19 Patients. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 2589. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9082589

AMA Style

Fernández-Quintela A, Milton-Laskibar I, Trepiana J, Gómez-Zorita S, Kajarabille N, Léniz A, González M, Portillo MP. Key Aspects in Nutritional Management of COVID-19 Patients. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020; 9(8):2589. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9082589

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; Milton-Laskibar, Iñaki; Trepiana, Jenifer; Gómez-Zorita, Saioa; Kajarabille, Naroa; Léniz, Asier; González, Marcela; Portillo, María P. 2020. "Key Aspects in Nutritional Management of COVID-19 Patients" J. Clin. Med. 9, no. 8: 2589. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9082589

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