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Sexual Dimorphism of NAFLD in Adults. Focus on Clinical Aspects and Implications for Practice and Translational Research

1
Operating Unit Metabolic Syndrome, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Modena, Ospedale Civile di Baggiovara, 41126 Baggiovara MO, Italy
2
Division of Gastroenterology, Durham VA Medical Center and Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27705, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1278; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051278
Received: 29 March 2020 / Revised: 23 April 2020 / Accepted: 24 April 2020 / Published: 28 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Should Physicians Consider NAFLD a Primary or Secondary Disease?)
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) embraces the clinico-pathological consequences of hepatic lipotoxicity and is a major public health problem globally. Sexual dimorphism is a definite feature of most human diseases but, under this aspect, NAFLD lags behind other medical fields. Here, we aim at summarizing and critically discussing the most prominent sex differences and gaps in NAFLD in humans, with emphasis on those aspects which are relevant for clinical practice and translational research. Sexual dimorphism of NAFLD is covered with references to the following areas: disease prevalence and risk factors, pathophysiology, comorbidities, natural course and complications. Finally, we also discuss selected gender differences and whether sex-specific lifestyle changes should be adopted to contrast NAFLD in men and women. View Full-Text
Keywords: cardiovascular risk; clinical course; cirrhosis; diabetes; epidemiology; HCC; NASH; pathogenesis; sex medicine; steatosis; sex differences; serum uric acid; type 2 diabetes; tumors cardiovascular risk; clinical course; cirrhosis; diabetes; epidemiology; HCC; NASH; pathogenesis; sex medicine; steatosis; sex differences; serum uric acid; type 2 diabetes; tumors
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lonardo, A.; Suzuki, A. Sexual Dimorphism of NAFLD in Adults. Focus on Clinical Aspects and Implications for Practice and Translational Research. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 1278. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051278

AMA Style

Lonardo A, Suzuki A. Sexual Dimorphism of NAFLD in Adults. Focus on Clinical Aspects and Implications for Practice and Translational Research. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020; 9(5):1278. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051278

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lonardo, Amedeo; Suzuki, Ayako. 2020. "Sexual Dimorphism of NAFLD in Adults. Focus on Clinical Aspects and Implications for Practice and Translational Research" J. Clin. Med. 9, no. 5: 1278. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051278

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