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Open AccessArticle

People with Suspected COVID-19 Symptoms Were More Likely Depressed and Had Lower Health-Related Quality of Life: The Potential Benefit of Health Literacy

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Director Office, Thai Nguyen National Hospital, Thai Nguyen City 241-24, Vietnam
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President Office, Thai Nguyen University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Thai Nguyen City 241-17, Vietnam
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International Master/Ph.D. Program in Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110-31, Taiwan
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Department of Infectious Diseases, Military Medical University, Hanoi 121-08, Vietnam
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Division of Military Science, Military Medical Hospital 103, Hanoi 121-08, Vietnam
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Department of Anesthesiology, Thu Duc District Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City 713-11, Vietnam
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Director Office, Thu Duc District Health Center, Ho Chi Minh City 713-10, Vietnam
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Health Management Training Institute, Hue University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Thua Thien Hue 491-20, Vietnam
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School of Health Policy, Planning and Financing, Corvinus University of Budapest, Budapest 1093, Hungary
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Faculty of Public Health, Hai Phong University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Hai Phong 042-12, Vietnam
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President Office, Hai Phong University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Hai Phong 042-12, Vietnam
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Department of Pulmonary & Cardiovascular Diseases, Hai Phong University of Medicine and Pharmacy Hospital, Hai Phong 042-12, Vietnam
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Director Office, Hai Phong University of Medicine and Pharmacy Hospital, Hai Phong 042-12, Vietnam
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Director Office, Hospital District 2; Ho Chi Minh City 711-13, Vietnam
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Nursing Office, Tan Phu District Hospital; Ho Chi Minh City 720-16, Vietnam
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Director Office, Military Medical Hospital 103, Hanoi 121-08, Vietnam
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Department of Internal Medicine, Thai Nguyen University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Thai Nguyen City 241-17, Vietnam
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Department of Health Education, Faculty of Social Sciences, Behavior and Health Education, Hanoi University of Public Health, Hanoi 119-10, Vietnam
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School of Nutrition and Health Sciences, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110-31, Taiwan
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Research Center of Geriatric Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110-31, Taiwan
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Nutrition Research Center, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 110-31, Taiwan
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Master Program in Global Health and Development, College of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110-31, Taiwan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(4), 965; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9040965
Received: 12 March 2020 / Revised: 26 March 2020 / Accepted: 27 March 2020 / Published: 31 March 2020
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic affects people’s health and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), especially in those who have suspected COVID-19 symptoms (S-COVID-19-S). We examined the effect of modifications of health literacy (HL) on depression and HRQoL. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 14 February to 2 March 2020. 3947 participants were recruited from outpatient departments of nine hospitals and health centers across Vietnam. The interviews were conducted using printed questionnaires including participants’ characteristics, clinical parameters, health behaviors, HL, depression, and HRQoL. People with S-COVID-19-S had a higher depression likelihood (OR, 2.88; p < 0.001), lower HRQoL-score (B, −7.92; p < 0.001). In comparison to people without S-COVID-19-S and low HL, those with S-COVID-19-S and low HL had 9.70 times higher depression likelihood (p < 0.001), 20.62 lower HRQoL-score (p < 0.001), for the people without S-COVID-19-S, 1 score increment of HL resulted in 5% lower depression likelihood (p < 0.001) and 0.45 higher HRQoL-score (p < 0.001), while for those people with S-COVID-19-S, 1 score increment of HL resulted in a 4% lower depression likelihood (p = 0.004) and 0.43 higher HRQoL-score (p < 0.001). People with S-COVID-19-S had a higher depression likelihood and lower HRQoL than those without. HL shows a protective effect on depression and HRQoL during the epidemic. View Full-Text
Keywords: coronavirus; COVID-19; epidemic; suspected COVID-19 symptoms; comorbidity; healthy eating; physical activity; health literacy; depression; health-related quality of life coronavirus; COVID-19; epidemic; suspected COVID-19 symptoms; comorbidity; healthy eating; physical activity; health literacy; depression; health-related quality of life
MDPI and ACS Style

Nguyen, H.C.; Nguyen, M.H.; Do, B.N.; Tran, C.Q.; Nguyen, T.T.P.; Pham, K.M.; Pham, L.V.; Tran, K.V.; Duong, T.T.; Tran, T.V.; Duong, T.H.; Nguyen, T.T.; Nguyen, Q.H.; Hoang, T.M.; Nguyen, K.T.; Pham, T.T.M.; Yang, S.-H.; Chao, J. .-J.; Duong, T.V. People with Suspected COVID-19 Symptoms Were More Likely Depressed and Had Lower Health-Related Quality of Life: The Potential Benefit of Health Literacy. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 965.

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