Next Article in Journal
Effect of Botulinum Toxin A on Scar Healing after Thyroidectomy: A Prospective Double-blind Randomized Controlled Trial
Next Article in Special Issue
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Metabolomics Biomarkers for Identifying High Risk Patients with Extranodal Extension in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Previous Article in Journal
Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Treatments for Non-Variceal Upper GI Bleeding: A Review of the Literature
Previous Article in Special Issue
Potential Salivary mRNA Biomarkers for Early Detection of Oral Cancer
Open AccessArticle

Evaluation of Proinflammatory, NF-kappaB Dependent Cytokines: IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α in Tissue Specimens and Saliva of Patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders

1
Jagiellonian University Medical College, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Dentistry, Chair and Department of Periodontology and Clinical Oral Pathology, Montelupich 4, 31-155 Krakow, Poland
2
Jagiellonian University Medical College, Faculty of Medicine, Chair of Clinical Biochemistry, Department of Diagnostics, Kopernika 15A, 31-501 Krakow, Poland
3
Jagiellonian University Medical College, Faculty of Medicine, Chair of Pathomorphology, Grzegórzecka 16, 31-531 Krakow, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(3), 867; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9030867
Received: 14 February 2020 / Revised: 15 March 2020 / Accepted: 17 March 2020 / Published: 21 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Oral Cancer—Basic and Clinical Sciences)
Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a life-threatening disease. It could be preceded by oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs). It was confirmed that chronic inflammation can promote carcinogenesis. Cytokines play a crucial role in this process. The aim of the study was to evaluate interleukin-1alpha (IL-1α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in tissue specimens and saliva of patients with OSCC and OPMDs. Methods: Cytokines were evaluated in 60 tissue specimens of pathological lesions (OSCCs or OPMDs) and in 7 controls (normal oral mucosa, NOM) by immunohistochemistry and in saliva of 45 patients with OSCC or OPMDs and 9 controls (healthy volunteers) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results: Immunohistochemical analysis revealed significantly higher expression of IL-8 in OSCC specimens and TNF-α in OSCCs and OPMDs with dysplasia as compared to NOM. Moreover, expression of TNF-α was significantly higher in oral leukoplakia and oral lichen planus without dysplasia, whereas expression of IL-8 only in oral leukoplakia without dysplasia in comparison with NOM. Salivary concentrations of all evaluated cytokines were significantly higher in patients with OSCC than in controls. Moreover, levels of IL-8 were significantly higher in saliva of patients with OPMDs with dysplasia as compared to controls and in OSCC patients as compared to patients with dysplastic lesions. There was also significant increase in salivary concentrations of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α in patients with OSCC as compared to patients with OPMDs without dysplasia. Conclusion: The study confirmed that proinflammatory, NF-kappaB dependent cytokines are involved in pathogenesis of OPMDs and OSCC. The most important biomarker of malignant transformation process within oral mucosa among all assessed cytokines seems to be IL-8. Further studies on a larger sample size are needed to corroborate these results. View Full-Text
Keywords: oral squamous cell carcinoma; oral potentially malignant disorders; inflammation; biomarkers; cytokines oral squamous cell carcinoma; oral potentially malignant disorders; inflammation; biomarkers; cytokines
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Babiuch, K.; Kuśnierz-Cabala, B.; Kęsek, B.; Okoń, K.; Darczuk, D.; Chomyszyn-Gajewska, M. Evaluation of Proinflammatory, NF-kappaB Dependent Cytokines: IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α in Tissue Specimens and Saliva of Patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 867.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop