Fungal rhinosinusitis is a unique phenotype of chronic rhinosinusitis with unique clinical and histological characteristics. The role of bacterial microbiota in various phenotypes chronic rhinosinusitis is not thoroughly understood. Therefore, we conducted 16s rRNA amplification sequencing to determine differences in bacterial communities between phenotypes (fungal vs. non- fungal) and anatomical sites (middle meatus vs. nasopharynx). Endoscope-guided swabs were used to collect samples from the middle meatus and nasopharynx of seven consecutive patients with fungal and 18 consecutive patients with non-fungal rhinosinusitis. DNA was extracted and investigated through 16S rRNA amplification. Among samples from the middle meatus, Shannon diversity was significantly lower in those from the fungal rhinosinusitis group (p
= 0.029). However, no significant differences in diversity were noted between nasopharynx samples (p
= 0.85). Fungal rhinosinusitis samples exhibited a distinct distribution of taxon relative abundance, which involved not only the absence of rhinosinusitis-associated commensal Corynebacterium
in the middle meatus but also a significant increase in Haemophilus
prevalence and abundance. This is the first study to compare bacterial communities in fungal and non-fungal rhinosinusitis samples. Our findings demonstrated that bacterial community dysbiosis was more apparent in fungal rhinosinusitis samples and was limited to the middle meatus.
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