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Open AccessReview

Oral–Gut Microbiota and Arthritis: Is There an Evidence-Based Axis?

1
Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology, Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health & Microbiome, Culturomics and Biofilm related infections (MCB) Unit, “Invernizzi” Pediatric Clinical Research Center, University of Milan, 20133 Milan, Italy
2
Department of Pediatrics, V. Buzzi Childrens’ Hospital & “Invernizzi” Pediatric Clinical Research Center University of Milan, 20141 Milan, Italy
3
Carlo Luca Romanò, Studio Medico Cecca-Romanò, Corso Venezia, 2, 20121 Milano, Italy
4
Romano Institute, Rruga Ibrahim Rugova, 1, 00100 Tirane, Albania
5
Rothman Institute, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 89814, USA
6
IRCCS Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi, 20141 Milan, Italy
7
Department of Biomedical, Surgical and Dental Science, University of Milan, 20133 Milan, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(10), 1753; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8101753
Received: 28 July 2019 / Revised: 12 October 2019 / Accepted: 15 October 2019 / Published: 22 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Skin-Gut-Breast Microbiota Axes)
The gut microbiome appears to be a significant contributor to musculoskeletal health and disease. Recently, it has been found that oral microbiota are involved in arthritis pathogenesis. Microbiome composition and its functional implications have been associated with the prevention of bone loss and/or reducing fracture risk. The link between gut–oral microbiota and joint inflammation in animal models of arthritis has been established, and it is now receiving increasing attention in human studies. Recent papers have demonstrated substantial alterations in the gut and oral microbiota in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA). These alterations resemble those established in systemic inflammatory conditions (inflammatory bowel disease, spondyloarthritides, and psoriasis), which include decreased microbial diversity and a disturbance of immunoregulatory properties. An association between abundance of oral Porphyromonas gingivalis and intestinal Prevotella copri in RA patients compared to healthy controls has been clearly demonstrated. These new findings open important future horizons both for understanding disease pathophysiology and for developing novel biomarkers and treatment strategies. The changes and decreased diversity of oral and gut microbiota seem to play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of RA and OA. However, specific microbial clusters and biomarkers belonging to oral and gut microbiota need to be further investigated to highlight the mechanisms related to alterations in bones and joints inflammatory pathway. View Full-Text
Keywords: microbiota axis; gut microbiota; oral microbiota arthritis; joint inflammation microbiota axis; gut microbiota; oral microbiota arthritis; joint inflammation
MDPI and ACS Style

Drago, L.; Zuccotti, G.V.; Romanò, C.L.; Goswami, K.; Villafañe, J.H.; Mattina, R.; Parvizi, J. Oral–Gut Microbiota and Arthritis: Is There an Evidence-Based Axis? J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 1753.

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