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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

The Association between Alcohol Hangover Frequency and Severity: Evidence for Reverse Tolerance?

1
Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences (UIPS), Utrecht University, 3584CG Utrecht, The Netherlands
2
Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, 3584CM Utrecht, The Netherlands
3
Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, VIC 3122 Melbourne, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(10), 1520; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8101520
Received: 31 August 2019 / Revised: 16 September 2019 / Accepted: 18 September 2019 / Published: 21 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Alcohol Hangover: Causes, Consequences, and Treatment)
Although hangover is a common consequence of heavy alcohol consumption, the area is heavily under-researched. Hangover frequency is a potential predictor of future alcohol use disorder that may be affected by hangover severity, yet the relationship between hangover frequency and severity has not been investigated. Using different methodologies and assessment instruments, two surveys, and one naturalistic study collected data on hangover frequency, hangover severity, and alcohol consumption. The relationship between hangover frequency and severity was investigated via correlational analysis, considering potentially moderating variables including alcohol intake, estimated blood alcohol concentration, demographics, and personality characteristics. In all the three studies, a positive and significant association between hangover frequency and severity was found, which remained significant after correcting for alcohol intake and other moderating factors. These findings suggest that hangover severity increases when hangovers are experienced more frequently and may be driven by sensitization or reverse tolerance to this aspect of alcohol consumption. Future research should further investigate the relationship between hangover frequency and severity and alcohol use disorder and its implications for prevention. View Full-Text
Keywords: alcohol; hangover; frequency; severity; tolerance alcohol; hangover; frequency; severity; tolerance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Verster, J.C.; Slot, K.A.; Arnoldy, L.; van Lawick van Pabst, A.E.; van de Loo, A.J.A.E.; Benson, S.; Scholey, A. The Association between Alcohol Hangover Frequency and Severity: Evidence for Reverse Tolerance? J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 1520.

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