Next Article in Journal
A Facile Synthesis of (PIM-Polyimide)-(6FDA-Durene-Polyimide) Copolymer as Novel Polymer Membranes for CO2 Separation
Next Article in Special Issue
Thermoelectric Behavior of BaZr0.9Y0.1O3−d Proton Conducting Electrolyte
Previous Article in Journal
Biofouling of Polyamide Membranes: Fouling Mechanisms, Current Mitigation and Cleaning Strategies, and Future Prospects
Previous Article in Special Issue
Correlation between Concentrations of Ni and Y in Y-Doped BaZrO3 Electrolyte in Co-Sintered Cells: A Case of Controlled NiO Activity by Using MgO-NiO Solid Solution as Anode Substrate
Open AccessReview

Electrochemical Synthesis of Ammonia: Recent Efforts and Future Outlook

1
Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
2
Chemical Processes & Energy Resources Institute, Center for Research and Technology Hellas, 56071 Thessaloniki, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Membranes 2019, 9(9), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes9090112
Received: 30 July 2019 / Revised: 27 August 2019 / Accepted: 28 August 2019 / Published: 30 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramic Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications and Hydrogen Production )
Ammonia is a key chemical produced in huge quantities worldwide. Its primary industrial production is via the Haber-Bosch method; a process requiring high temperatures and pressures, and consuming large amounts of energy. In the past two decades, several alternatives to the existing process have been proposed, including the electrochemical synthesis. The present paper reviews literature concerning this approach and the experimental research carried out in aqueous, molten salt, or solid electrolyte cells, over the past three years. The electrochemical systems are grouped, described, and discussed according to the operating temperature, which is determined by the electrolyte used, and their performance is valuated. The problems which need to be addressed further in order to scale-up the electrochemical synthesis of ammonia to the industrial level are examined. View Full-Text
Keywords: ammonia synthesis; electrochemistry; solid state ammonia synthesis; molten electrolytes; aqueous electrolytes; non-aqueous electrolytes ammonia synthesis; electrochemistry; solid state ammonia synthesis; molten electrolytes; aqueous electrolytes; non-aqueous electrolytes
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Garagounis, I.; Vourros, A.; Stoukides, D.; Dasopoulos, D.; Stoukides, M. Electrochemical Synthesis of Ammonia: Recent Efforts and Future Outlook. Membranes 2019, 9, 112.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop