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Open AccessArticle

Towards a Zero-Waste Biorefinery Using Edible Oils as Solvents for the Green Extraction of Volatile and Non-Volatile Bioactive Compounds from Rosemary

1
JNU-UPM International Joint Laboratory on Plant Oil Processing and Safety, Guangdong Engineering Technology Research Center for Cereal and Oil Byproduct Biorefinery, Department of Food Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China
2
GREEN Extraction Team, Université d’Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, INRA, UMR408, F-84000 Avignon, France
3
Department of Pharmacognosy and Pharmaceutical Botany, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Prince of Songkla University, Hat-Yai, Songkhla 90112, Thailand
4
INRA, UMR408, Securité et Qualité des Produits d’Origine Végétale, F-84000 Avignon, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(5), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8050140
Received: 6 May 2019 / Revised: 16 May 2019 / Accepted: 18 May 2019 / Published: 21 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenolic Antioxidants from Agri-Food Waste Biomass)
The zero-waste biorefinery concept inspired a green oleo-extraction of both natural volatile (e.g., borneol, camphor, o-cymene, eucalyptol, limonene, α-pinene, and terpinen-4-ol) and non-volatile (e.g., carnosol, carnosic, and rosmarinic acid) bioactive compounds from rosemary leaves with vegetable oils and their amphiphilic derivatives as simple food-grade solvents. It is noteworthy that soybean oil could obtain the highest total phenolic compounds (TPCs) among 12 refined oils including grapeseed, rapeseed, peanut, sunflower, olive, avocado, almond, apricot, corn, wheat germ, and hazelnut oils. Furthermore, the addition of oil derivatives to soybean oils, such as glyceryl monooleate (GMO), glyceryl monostearate (GMS), diglycerides, and soy lecithin in particular, could not only significantly enhance the oleo-extraction of non-volatile antioxidants by 66.7% approximately, but also help to remarkably improve the solvation of volatile aroma compounds (VACs) by 16% in refined soybean oils. These experimental results were in good consistency with their relative solubilities predicted by the more sophisticated COSMO-RS (COnductor like Screening MOdel for Real Solvents) simulation. This simple procedure of using vegetable oils and their derivatives as bio-based solvents for simultaneously improving the extraction yield of natural antioxidants and flavors from rosemary showed its great potential in up-scaling with the integration of green techniques (ultrasound, microwave, etc.) for zero-waste biorefinery from biomass waste to high value-added extracts in future functional food and cosmetic applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: green oleo-extraction; zero-waste biorefinery; natural antioxidants and flavors; food-grade solvents; vegetable oils and derivatives; relative solubility simulation green oleo-extraction; zero-waste biorefinery; natural antioxidants and flavors; food-grade solvents; vegetable oils and derivatives; relative solubility simulation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, Y.; Bundeesomchok, K.; Rakotomanomana, N.; Fabiano-Tixier, A.-S.; Bott, R.; Wang, Y.; Chemat, F. Towards a Zero-Waste Biorefinery Using Edible Oils as Solvents for the Green Extraction of Volatile and Non-Volatile Bioactive Compounds from Rosemary. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 140.

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