(1) Background: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) approaches are widely used to study cortical and corticospinal function. However, responses to TMS are subject to significant intra-and inter-individual variability. Acute and chronic exposure to recreational substances alters the excitability of the sensorimotor system and may contribute to the variability in TMS outcome measures. The increasing prevalence of recreational substance use poses a significant challenge for executing TMS studies, but there is a lack of clarity regarding the influence of these substances on sensorimotor function. (2) Methods: The literature investigating the influence of alcohol, nicotine, caffeine and cannabis on TMS outcome measures of corticospinal, intracortical and interhemispheric excitability was reviewed. (3) Results: Both acute and chronic use of recreational substances modulates TMS measures of excitability. Despite the abundance of research in this field, we identify knowledge gaps that should be addressed in future studies to better understand the influence of these substances on TMS outcomes. (4) Conclusions: This review highlights the need for TMS studies to take into consideration the history of participant substance use and to control for acute substance use prior to testing.
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