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Imaging of the Spinal Cord in Multiple Sclerosis: Past, Present, Future

1
Department of Neurology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48021, USA
2
Department of Radiology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48021, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(11), 857; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10110857
Received: 24 October 2020 / Revised: 30 October 2020 / Accepted: 11 November 2020 / Published: 13 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue A Decade of Brain Sciences)
Spinal cord imaging in multiple sclerosis (MS) plays a significant role in diagnosing and tracking disease progression. The spinal cord is one of four key areas of the central nervous system where documenting the dissemination in space in the McDonald criteria for diagnosing MS. Spinal cord lesion load and the severity of cord atrophy are believed to be more relevant to disability than white matter lesions in the brain in different phenotypes of MS. Axonal loss contributes to spinal cord atrophy in MS and its degree correlates with disease severity and prognosis. Therefore, measures of axonal loss are often reliable biomarkers for monitoring disease progression. With recent technical advances, more and more qualitative and quantitative MRI techniques have been investigated in an attempt to provide objective and reliable diagnostic and monitoring biomarkers in MS. In this article, we discuss the role of spinal cord imaging in the diagnosis and prognosis of MS and, additionally, we review various techniques that may improve our understanding of the disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: multiple sclerosis; spinal cord; magnetic resonance imaging; spinal cord atrophy; magnetization transfer ratio; diffusion imaging; disability multiple sclerosis; spinal cord; magnetic resonance imaging; spinal cord atrophy; magnetization transfer ratio; diffusion imaging; disability
MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, Y.; Haacke, E.M.; Bernitsas, E. Imaging of the Spinal Cord in Multiple Sclerosis: Past, Present, Future. Brain Sci. 2020, 10, 857. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10110857

AMA Style

Chen Y, Haacke EM, Bernitsas E. Imaging of the Spinal Cord in Multiple Sclerosis: Past, Present, Future. Brain Sciences. 2020; 10(11):857. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10110857

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chen, Yongsheng, Ewart M. Haacke, and Evanthia Bernitsas. 2020. "Imaging of the Spinal Cord in Multiple Sclerosis: Past, Present, Future" Brain Sciences 10, no. 11: 857. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10110857

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