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AR Displays: Next-Generation Technologies to Solve the Vergence–Accommodation Conflict

LightSpace Technologies, 1 Ziedleju, LV-2167 Marupe, Latvia
Hansamatrix Innovation, 1 Ziedleju, LV-2167 Marupe, Latvia
EuroLCDs, Ventspils Augsto tehnoloģiju parks 2, LV-3602 Ventspils, Latvia
Hansamatrix Ventspils, Ventspils Augsto tehnoloģiju parks 1, LV-3602 Ventspils, Latvia
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(15), 3147;
Received: 1 July 2019 / Revised: 25 July 2019 / Accepted: 31 July 2019 / Published: 2 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Augmented Reality: Current Trends, Challenges and Prospects)
PDF [3150 KB, uploaded 2 August 2019]


Augmenting reality (AR) holds many benefits in how people perceive information and use it in their workflow or leisure activities. A cohesive AR experience has many components; nevertheless, the key is display technologies. The current industry standard for the core solution is still conventional stereoscopy, which has proven to be inadequate for near-work due to the caused vergence–accommodation conflict and the inability to precisely overlay the 3D content on the real world. To overcome this, next-generation technologies have been proposed. While the holographic method holds the highest potential of being the ultimate solution, its current level of maturity is not sufficient to yield a practical product. Consequently, the next solution for near-work-capable AR displays will be of another type. LightSpace Technologies have developed a static multifocal display architecture based on stacked liquid crystal-based optical diffuser elements and a synchronized high-refresh rate image projector. A stream of 2D image depth planes comprising a 3D scene is projected onto respective physically-separated diffuser elements, causing the viewer to perceive a scene as continuous and having all relevant physical as well as psychological depth cues. A system with six image depth planes yielding 6 cpd resolution and 72° horizontal field-of-view has been demonstrated to provide perceptually continuous accommodation over 3.2 Diopter range. A further optimization by using a conventional image combiner resulted in the compact and practical design of the AR display. View Full-Text
Keywords: augmented reality; virtual reality; multifocal display; vergence–accommodation conflict; optical diffuser; 3D augmented reality; virtual reality; multifocal display; vergence–accommodation conflict; optical diffuser; 3D

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Zabels, R.; Osmanis, K.; Narels, M.; Gertners, U.; Ozols, A.; Rūtenbergs, K.; Osmanis, I. AR Displays: Next-Generation Technologies to Solve the Vergence–Accommodation Conflict. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 3147.

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