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Open AccessArticle

Relationship of Total Hemoglobin in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue with Whole-Body and Visceral Adiposity in Humans

1
Department of Sports Medicine for Health Promotion Tokyo Medical University, 6-1-1 Shinjuku, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 160-8402, Japan
2
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health Tokyo Medical University, 6-1-1 Shinjuku, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 160-8402, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The authors contributed equally to this work.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(12), 2442; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9122442
Received: 6 April 2019 / Revised: 10 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Horizons in Time-Domain Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy and Imaging)
High whole-body and visceral adiposity are risk factors that can cause metabolic diseases. We hypothesized that the total hemoglobin concentration (total-Hb) in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SATab), an indicator of white adipose tissue (WAT) vascularity, correlates negatively with risk factors for developing metabolic diseases, such as whole-body and visceral adiposity. We tested the optical characteristics of abdominal tissue in 140 participants (45 men and 95 women) who were apparently healthy individuals with a median age of 39 years. They also had a median body fat percentage of 25.4%, a visceral fat area of 50.4 cm2, and a SATab thickness of 1.05 cm. These tests were conducted using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy (NIRTRS) with a 2-cm optode separation. To distinguish the segments of SATab (SegSAT) and the mixture of muscle and SATab (SegSAT+Mus), the threshold was analyzed using the slopes of (total-Hb) against the thickness of SATab using the least-squares mean method. According to the results from the logistic regression analysis, the percentage of body fat and visceral fat area remained significant predictors of the (total-Hb) (p = 0.005 and p = 0.043, respectively) in the data for SegSAT (no influence from the SATab thickness). We conclude that simple, rapid, and noninvasive NIRTRS-determined (total-Hb) in WAT could be a useful parameter for evaluating risk factors for metabolic diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy; noninvasive; subcutaneous white adipose tissue; tissue total hemoglobin near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy; noninvasive; subcutaneous white adipose tissue; tissue total hemoglobin
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Kuroiwa, M.; Fuse, S.; Amagasa, S.; Kime, R.; Endo, T.; Kurosawa, Y.; Hamaoka, T. Relationship of Total Hemoglobin in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue with Whole-Body and Visceral Adiposity in Humans. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 2442.

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