Next Article in Journal
Predicting Behavior of Grouted Dowel Connections Using Interfacial Cohesive Elements
Next Article in Special Issue
Blockchain-Based Applications in Education: A Systematic Review
Previous Article in Journal
Recent Advances in Equalization Technologies for Short-Reach Optical Links Based on PAM4 Modulation: A Review
Previous Article in Special Issue
Assessing Blockchain Consensus and Security Mechanisms against the 51% Attack

A Hierarchical and Abstraction-Based Blockchain Model

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Patna, Bihta, Patna 801106, Bihar, India
Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Informatica e Statistica, Università Ca’ Foscari, via Torino 155, 30170 Venice, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(11), 2343;
Received: 24 April 2019 / Revised: 3 June 2019 / Accepted: 5 June 2019 / Published: 7 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Blockchain Technology and Applications)
In the nine years since its launch, amid intense research, scalability is always a serious concern in blockchain, especially in case of large-scale network generating huge number of transaction-records. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical blockchain model characterized by: (1) each level maintains multiple local blockchain networks, (2) each local blockchain records local transactional activities, and (3) partial views (tunable w.r.t. precision) of different subsets of local blockchain-records are maintained in the blockchains at next level of the hierarchy. To meet this objective, we apply abstractions on a set of transaction-records in a regular time interval by following the Abstract Interpretation framework, which provides a tunable precision in various abstract domain and guarantees the soundness of the system. While this model suitably fits to the real-worlds organizational structures, the proposal is powerful enough to scale when large number of nodes participate in a network resulting into an enormous growth of the network-size and the number of transaction-records. We discuss experimental results on a small-scale network with three sub networks at lower-level and by abstracting the transaction-records in the abstract domain of intervals. The results are encouraging and clearly indicate the effectiveness of this approach to control exponential growth of blockchain size w.r.t. the total number of participants in the network. View Full-Text
Keywords: blockchain; abstract interpretation; hierarchical model blockchain; abstract interpretation; hierarchical model
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Sahoo, S.; Fajge, A.M.; Halder, R.; Cortesi, A. A Hierarchical and Abstraction-Based Blockchain Model. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 2343.

AMA Style

Sahoo S, Fajge AM, Halder R, Cortesi A. A Hierarchical and Abstraction-Based Blockchain Model. Applied Sciences. 2019; 9(11):2343.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sahoo, Swagatika, Akshay M. Fajge, Raju Halder, and Agostino Cortesi. 2019. "A Hierarchical and Abstraction-Based Blockchain Model" Applied Sciences 9, no. 11: 2343.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop