2. Description of Flywheel Energy Storage System
2.2. Structure and Components of FESS
2.2.1. Flywheel Rotor
2.2.2. Electric Machine
2.2.3. Power Electronics
3. FESS Characteristics
4. FESS Applications
4.1. Power Quality
4.2. Frequency Regulation
4.3. Voltage Sag Control
5. Recommendations for Future Research
Conflicts of Interest
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|Machine||Asynchronous||Variable Reluctance||Permanent Magnet Synchronous|
|Power||High||Medium and low||Medium and low|
|Medium (~0.7 kW/kg)|
Copper and iron
|Medium (~0.7 kW/kg)|
Iron due to slots
|High (~1.2 kW/kg)|
|Spinning losses||Removable by annulling flux||Removable by annulling flux||Non-removable, static flux|
|Efficiency||High (93.4%)||High (93%)||Very high (95.5%)|
|Control||Vector control||Synchronous: Vector Control. Switched: DSP||Sinusoidal: Vector control. Trapezoidal: DSP|
|Size||1.8 L/kW||2.6 L/kW||2.3 L/kW|
|Torque ripple||Medium (7.3%)||High (24%)||Medium (10%)|
|Maximum/base speed||Medium (>3)||High (>4)||Low (<2)|
|Cost||Low (22 €/kW)||Low (24 €/kW)||Low (38 €/kW)|
|Advantages||Low cost||Robustness of temperature overheat||Low loss, high efficiency|
|Simple manufacture||Overcurrent capability||High power density|
|Technology-matured||Excitation coil can repeat adjustment||High load density|
|Adjustable power factor||Lower loss at starting torque||High torque density|
|No demagnetization||Easy to dissipate heat||Small volume, light quality|
|High energy storage||Lower loss, higher efficiency||low rotor resistance loss|
|No running loss||High power density||No field winding loss|
|Flexible shape and size|
|Simple control mode|
|Disadvantages||High slip ratio of rotor||Complex structure||poor robustness of temperature|
|Limited speed||Difficult to manufacture||Demagnetisation|
|Larger volume||Low power factor||High cost|
|Low power to quality ratio||Torque ripple, vibration and noise||Materials fragile|
|High losses, low efficiency||More outlet from machine||Difficult air gap flux-|
|Difficult to regulate speed||field adjustment|
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