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Surface Improvement of Halloysite Nanotubes

Department of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Built Environment, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia
Department of Machinery Equipment Engineering Techniques, Technical College Al-Musaib, Al-Furat Al-Awsat Technical University, Al-Musaib, Babil 51009, Iraq
Department of Chemical & Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia
Program of Chemical Engineering, Taylor’s University-Lakeside Campus, Subang Jaya 47500, Selangor, Malaysia
Environmental Research Center, University of Technology (UOT), Baghdad 10001, Iraq
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David K. Mills
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(3), 291;
Received: 30 December 2016 / Revised: 14 February 2017 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 16 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Modification of Halloysite Nanotubes)
A novel development on halloysite-polyvinyl alcohol (HNTs-PVA) nanocomposites has been conducted using malonic acid (MA) by crosslinking PVA and HNTs. PVA-MA crosslinking produces smooth surfaces, which play an important role in enhancing the properties of HNTs-PVA nanocomposite. The crystallographic structures of crosslinked HNTs-PVA show almost no change as depicted by the X-ray diffraction (XRD)-2θ-peak, suggesting that MA has no or little influence on the crystallographic structure of the HNTs-PVA. Images taken by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) suggest possible effects of MA on the morphology and internal features of HNTs-PVA by reducing the agglomeration of HNTs, which is considered a decisive step in improving the surface qualities of HNTs. Investigating the samples using the Brunauer–Emmelt–Teller (BET) technique showed that the surface area was increased by about 10 times, reaching the second highest recorded results compared to the HNTs, which could be considered a breakthrough step in enhancing the properties of HNTs-PVA due to MA crosslinking. View Full-Text
Keywords: halloysite; nanotubes; polyvinyl; malonic acid halloysite; nanotubes; polyvinyl; malonic acid
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Gaaz, T.S.; Sulong, A.B.; Kadhum, A.A.H.; Nassir, M.H.; Al-Amiery, A.A. Surface Improvement of Halloysite Nanotubes. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 291.

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