A novel development on halloysite-polyvinyl alcohol (HNTs-PVA) nanocomposites has been conducted using malonic acid (MA) by crosslinking PVA and HNTs. PVA-MA crosslinking produces smooth surfaces, which play an important role in enhancing the properties of HNTs-PVA nanocomposite. The crystallographic structures of crosslinked HNTs-PVA show almost no change as depicted by the X-ray diffraction (XRD)-2
θ-peak, suggesting that MA has no or little influence on the crystallographic structure of the HNTs-PVA. Images taken by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) suggest possible effects of MA on the morphology and internal features of HNTs-PVA by reducing the agglomeration of HNTs, which is considered a decisive step in improving the surface qualities of HNTs. Investigating the samples using the Brunauer–Emmelt–Teller (BET) technique showed that the surface area was increased by about 10 times, reaching the second highest recorded results compared to the HNTs, which could be considered a breakthrough step in enhancing the properties of HNTs-PVA due to MA crosslinking.
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