Countering the Novelty Effect: A Tutorial for Immersive Virtual Reality Learning Environments
2. State of the Art
3. Materials and Methods
3.1. Design of the iVR Tutorial
- Multimedia principle: a principle that consists of learning from a combination of graphics and text together rather than using only words. The images help the understanding of the material, so its use is recommended. As one of the main problems with iVR is learning how to operate the virtual controllers, iVR tutorials often include graphics and diagrams where controller buttons are presented alongside an explanation of their functions. This principle of teaching users how to use the iVR controllers through a combination of graphics and text is shown in Figure 2.
- Signaling principle. This principle states that learning can be improved when essential words are highlighted in various ways, i.e., arrows, large text, bold text, and color. In this research, the principle has been adapted so that the information appears as visual cues to conduct the user’s attention (see Figure 3). In this figure, the assistant robot, which leads the user through the iVR tutorial and the iVR learning experience, appears, offering help when the user looks directly at it (see Figure 3A where a signaling cue is highlighted by an orange rectangle) and when the robot assistant is waiting for the user help call (see the orange rectangle in Figure 3B). The signaling principle is represented by not overloading the environment with information and only showing the information when the user requires it. Furthermore, the use of visual cues has been shown in various studies to speed up learning information and to enhance learning efficacy, as Lin and Anderson explained , to decrease cognitive load as demonstrated earlier [35,36], and to improve the speed and the accuracy of completing tasks, as Kelleher and Pausch demonstrated . In addition, the use of iVR environments faces other challenges. For example, visualization problems can occur if objects are placed in the periphery (the user would have to turn his head to see them). To overcome this problem, the main visual elements have been placed in the user’s initial field of view (FOV). Users pay much more attention to the initial FOV than to the rest of the regions, which means that if information is placed outside the initial FOV, users may lose track of events .
- Coherence principle. According to this principle, learning improves when irrelevant material is avoided. This extra material is unnecessary for the purpose of the instruction and it should be excluded from it . Likewise, the use of extraneous words and diagrams can cause distraction (directing the learner’s attention to irrelevant material), disruption (the superfluous material interrupting the thought patterns of the user so that no mental model is created), and seduction (focusing on an irrelevant field of knowledge). Following this principle, the iVR tutorial of this research design is composed of neutral colors with no elements that can distract, and superfluous extra material has been avoided. Also, the scenario is the same, so it cannot hinder the perception of the iVR environment, as Wojciechowski et al.  showed in their research. Figure 4 shows an example of the iVR environment according to the coherence principle.
- Spatial contiguity principle. In keeping with this principle, the words and graphics are depicted nearby. As can be seen in Figure 2, the text and the image to which it refers are close together. Minimal distances between the text and related images facilitate learning, rather than longer distances, and information shown on separate screens.
- Temporal contiguity principle. This principle is related to the spatial contiguity principle, because the images appear near the text and are shown at the same time. There is no narration in the iVR tutorial, but both principles have been adapted not only with the images and text, but also with the assistant robot and its text bubble.
- Redundancy principle. According to this principle, learning is facilitated to a greater extent with a combination of narration and animation, rather than with a combination of animation, narration, and text. Exceptionally, learning is enhanced when the on-screen text that also highlights relevant information is shortened and placed near the image to which it refers. In this research, the principle is applied whenever the assistant robot explains each task to a user and when the information is shown on the board complementing the information from the robot and the most relevant text is highlighted. Figure 5 is an example of the redundancy principle that has been adapted to this research.
- Personalization principle. This principle shows that learning improves when an informal rather than a formal narrative style is used. The iVR tutorial of this research has an informal style of conversation, referring to the assistant robot and the graphics. In Figure 6, an example is highlighted with an orange rectangle.
3.2. Development of the iVR Tutorial
- Introduction. The first space the user encounters when entering the iVR environment. Distraction is avoided, in order for the user to become accustomed to the iVR world and to become familiar with it. In addition, the design of this module follows the coherence principle, which limits the use of distracting and strange words and graphics.
- Basic interactions. The basic interactions can be started once the user is familiar with the iVR environment. The user will be able to press a button as a first basic action to initiate the tutorial. Pressing a button is a basic and accessible interaction. Moreover, the user manages the pace during the tutorial. After pressing the first button, more basic button-pressing interactions appear, so as to progress through the tutorial.
- Grab. In iVR, grabbing is one of the most common interactions. It is also usual that the grabbing interaction pursues a certain purpose, in which it is necessary to attach the grabbed item. In the iVR tutorial, users learn how to grab and to attach different objects with different purposes.
- Complex interactions. In addition to basic interactions such as pressing buttons and grabbing and attaching objects, the iVR tutorial includes complex interactions such as interacting with levers. These complex interactions can be required to accomplish certain tasks in some iVR applications.
- Interact with user interfaces. The user interfaces are commonly included as menus and information screens, so it is important for the users to know how these interfaces work.
- Explore and play. This is the final module. It has been conceived as a set of all the previous modules. The user can explore and interact with all the surrounding objects. All the mechanics already known by the user are included. When the user feels prepared, the learning experience can begin, and the users can do so with the feeling of being ready to face the tasks proposed in the iVR experience.
3.3. Design of the Usability and Satisfaction Survey
- Engagement is the involvement that exists between the user and that user’s actions within the VR environment. Motivation is directly related to engagement, so if the user is motivated, the user will also be engaged. Furthermore, engagement is connected with presence and immersion . In the proposed survey, engagement is evaluated with 3 questions.
- Immersion levels depend on the hardware and depend on the extent of the stimuli from the virtual world that the user perceives. The hardware replaces the user stimuli with the virtual sensory stimuli . For its assessment, 4 questions were used in the survey.
- Flow is the psychological state when a user feels control, fun, and enjoyment . Three questions were asked in the survey for the evaluation of flow.
- Skill is the gain in user knowledge when practicing certain activities during the VR experience. In the survey, skill was evaluated with 6 questions.
3.4. iVR Tutorial’s Evaluation with Final Users
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Component||VET (n = 10)||HNC (n = 11)||BA (n = 44)||Average (n = 65)|
|Component||No Cybersickness (n = 53)||Low Cybersickness|
(n = 10)
(n = 1)
(n = 1)
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Miguel-Alonso, I.; Rodriguez-Garcia, B.; Checa, D.; Bustillo, A. Countering the Novelty Effect: A Tutorial for Immersive Virtual Reality Learning Environments. Appl. Sci. 2023, 13, 593. https://doi.org/10.3390/app13010593
Miguel-Alonso I, Rodriguez-Garcia B, Checa D, Bustillo A. Countering the Novelty Effect: A Tutorial for Immersive Virtual Reality Learning Environments. Applied Sciences. 2023; 13(1):593. https://doi.org/10.3390/app13010593Chicago/Turabian Style
Miguel-Alonso, Ines, Bruno Rodriguez-Garcia, David Checa, and Andres Bustillo. 2023. "Countering the Novelty Effect: A Tutorial for Immersive Virtual Reality Learning Environments" Applied Sciences 13, no. 1: 593. https://doi.org/10.3390/app13010593