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Behav. Sci., Volume 5, Issue 1 (March 2015) , Pages 1-153

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Open AccessReview
Local Environmental Grassroots Activism: Contributions from Environmental Psychology, Sociology and Politics
Behav. Sci. 2015, 5(1), 121-153; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs5010121 - 23 Mar 2015
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3508
Abstract
Local environmental grassroots activism is robust and globally ubiquitous despite the ebbs and flows of the general environmental movement. In this review we synthesize social movement, environmental politics, and environmental psychology literatures to answer the following questions: How does the environment emerge as [...] Read more.
Local environmental grassroots activism is robust and globally ubiquitous despite the ebbs and flows of the general environmental movement. In this review we synthesize social movement, environmental politics, and environmental psychology literatures to answer the following questions: How does the environment emerge as a topic for community action and how a particular environmental discourse (preservation, conservation, public health, Deep Ecology, justice, localism and other responses to modernization and development) becomes dominant? How does a community coalesce around the environmental issue and its particular framing? What is the relationship between local and supralocal (regional, national, global) activism? We contrast “Not in My Back Yard” (NIMBY) activism and environmental liberation and discuss the significance of local knowledge and scale, nature as an issue for activism, place attachment and its disruption, and place-based power inequalities. Environmental psychology contributions to established scholarship on environmental activism are proposed: the components of place attachment are conceptualized in novel ways and a continuous dweller and activist place attachment is elaborated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Environmental Psychology)
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Open AccessBrief Report
Alcohol Abuse Mediates the Association between Baseline T/C Ratio and Anger Expression in Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators
Behav. Sci. 2015, 5(1), 113-120; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs5010113 - 20 Mar 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3021
Abstract
The imbalance between testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) levels has been proposed as a possible marker of risk for intimate partner violence (IPV). Moreover, it could be related to a high probability of adopting risky behaviors such as alcohol abuse which, in turn, [...] Read more.
The imbalance between testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) levels has been proposed as a possible marker of risk for intimate partner violence (IPV). Moreover, it could be related to a high probability of adopting risky behaviors such as alcohol abuse which, in turn, promotes the onset of IPV. This study tested the potential mediating effect of alcohol consumption on the relationship between baseline T/C ratio and anger expression in IPV perpetrators and non-violent controls. Alcohol consumption was higher in the former than controls. A high baseline T/C ratio was only associated with high anger expression in IPV perpetrators, and this association was mediated by high alcohol consumption. Thus, alcohol abuse may act as a catalytic factor in this relationship, high consumption promoting the onset of IPV. These findings contribute to the development of effective treatment and prevention programs, which could introduce the use of biological markers for preventing the onset, development and recidivism of IPV. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Is Black Always the Opposite of White? An Investigation on the Comprehension of Antonyms in People with Schizophrenia and in Healthy Participants
Behav. Sci. 2015, 5(1), 93-112; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs5010093 - 09 Mar 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2874
Abstract
The present investigation sought to expand our understanding of the cognitive processes underlying the recognition of antonyms and to evaluate whether these processes differed in patients with schizophrenia and in healthy controls. Antonymy is the most robust of the lexico-semantic relations and is [...] Read more.
The present investigation sought to expand our understanding of the cognitive processes underlying the recognition of antonyms and to evaluate whether these processes differed in patients with schizophrenia and in healthy controls. Antonymy is the most robust of the lexico-semantic relations and is relevant to both the mental organization of the lexicon and the organization of coherent discourse, as attested by the resurgence of interest in antonymy in the linguistic and psychological domains. In contrast, the vast literature on semantic processing in schizophrenia almost ignored antonymy. In this study, we tested the online comprehension of antonyms in 39 Italian patients with paranoid schizophrenia and in an equal number of pairwise-matched healthy controls. Participants read a definitional sentence fragment (e.g., the opposite of black is), followed by the correct antonym (white) or by a semantically unrelated word (nice), and judged whether or not the target word was correct. Patients were rather accurate in identifying antonyms, but compared to controls, they showed longer response times and higher priming scores, suggesting an exaggerated contextual facilitation. Presumably, this reflects a deficient controlled semantic processing and an overreliance on stored semantic representations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Experimental Examination of the Interaction between Mood Induction Task and Personality Psychopathology on State Emotion Dysregulation
Behav. Sci. 2015, 5(1), 70-92; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs5010070 - 09 Mar 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2584
Abstract
While emotion dysregulation has been investigated as a key variable in the development and persistence of personality psychopathology, few studies have explored state emotion dysregulation among individuals with personality disorders (PDs). The current study addresses this void in the literature through a laboratory [...] Read more.
While emotion dysregulation has been investigated as a key variable in the development and persistence of personality psychopathology, few studies have explored state emotion dysregulation among individuals with personality disorders (PDs). The current study addresses this void in the literature through a laboratory investigation of state emotion dysregulation among participants with and without PDs. To facilitate this goal, participants were matched to pairs based on similar personality features and were randomized to one of two behavioral analogues; either the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task-Computerized (PASAT-C) or an interpersonally based mood induction. As hypothesized, PD participants in the PASAT-C reported significantly more difficulty with impulsivity and emotion regulation strategies. Contrary to expectations, the PD group in the interpersonal task demonstrated significantly less difficulty with non-acceptance of emotion and emotional clarity and significantly greater positive affect compared to non-PD participants. Implications for these findings and directions for future research are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Developing the PTSD Checklist-I/F for the DSM-IV (PCL-I/F): Assessing PTSD Symptom Frequency and Intensity in a Pilot Study of Male Veterans with Combat-Related PTSD
Behav. Sci. 2015, 5(1), 59-69; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs5010059 - 03 Feb 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3248
Abstract
The widely used posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Checklist (PCL) has established reliability and validity, but it does not differentiate posttraumatic symptom frequency from intensity as elements of posttraumatic symptom severity. Thus, the PCL in its existing form may not provide a comprehensive appraisal [...] Read more.
The widely used posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Checklist (PCL) has established reliability and validity, but it does not differentiate posttraumatic symptom frequency from intensity as elements of posttraumatic symptom severity. Thus, the PCL in its existing form may not provide a comprehensive appraisal of posttraumatic symptomatology. Because of this, we modified the PCL to create the PCL-I/F that measures both frequency and intensity of PTSD symptoms via brief self-report. To establish validity and internal consistency of the PCL-I/F, we conducted a pilot study comparing PCL-I/F scores to structured diagnostic interview for PTSD (the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale [CAPS]) in a male combat veteran sample of 92 participants. Statistically significant correlations between the PCL-I/F and the CAPS were found, suggesting initial validation of the PCL-I/F to screen and assess frequency and intensity of combat-related PTSD symptoms. Implications are discussed for screening and assessment of PTSD related to combat and non-combat trauma. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Specificity of Cognitive and Behavioral Complaints in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury
Behav. Sci. 2015, 5(1), 43-58; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs5010043 - 30 Jan 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3234
Abstract
Characterization of cognitive and behavioral complaints is explored in Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) samples according to the severity of PTSD, depression and general anxiety conditions. Self-reported questionnaires on cognitive and behavioral changes are administered to PTSD, MTBI, [...] Read more.
Characterization of cognitive and behavioral complaints is explored in Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) samples according to the severity of PTSD, depression and general anxiety conditions. Self-reported questionnaires on cognitive and behavioral changes are administered to PTSD, MTBI, MTBI/PTSD and control groups. Confounding variables are controlled. All groups report more complaints since the traumatic event. PTSD and MTBI/PTSD groups report more anxiety symptoms, depression and complaints compared to the MTBI group. Relatives of the PTSD group confirm most of the behavioral changes reported. Results suggest the utility of self-reported questionnaires to personalize cognitive and behavioral interventions in PTSD and MTBI to cope with the impacts of the traumatic event. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Behavioral Sciences in 2014
Behav. Sci. 2015, 5(1), 41-42; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs5010041 - 08 Jan 2015
Viewed by 2224
Abstract
The editors of Behavioral Sciences would like to express their sincere gratitude to the followingreviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2014:[...] Full article
Open AccessReview
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Cardiac Patients: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Considerations for Assessment and Treatment
Behav. Sci. 2015, 5(1), 27-40; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs5010027 - 23 Dec 2014
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3351
Abstract
There is increasing awareness of the impact of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on physical health, particularly cardiovascular disease. We review the literature on the role of trauma in the development of cardiovascular risk factors and disease, aftermath of a cardiac event, and risk [...] Read more.
There is increasing awareness of the impact of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on physical health, particularly cardiovascular disease. We review the literature on the role of trauma in the development of cardiovascular risk factors and disease, aftermath of a cardiac event, and risk for recurrence in cardiac patients. We explore possible mechanisms to explain these relationships, as well as appropriate assessment and treatment strategies for this population. Our main conclusion is that screening and referral for appropriate treatments are important given the high prevalence rates of PTSD in cardiac populations and the associated impact on morbidity and mortality. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Music as Environment: An Ecological and Biosemiotic Approach
Behav. Sci. 2015, 5(1), 1-26; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs5010001 - 23 Dec 2014
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3940
Abstract
This paper provides an attempt to conceive of music in terms of a sounding environment. Starting from a definition of music as a collection of vibrational events, it introduces the distinction between discrete-symbolic representations as against analog-continuous representations of the sounds. The former [...] Read more.
This paper provides an attempt to conceive of music in terms of a sounding environment. Starting from a definition of music as a collection of vibrational events, it introduces the distinction between discrete-symbolic representations as against analog-continuous representations of the sounds. The former makes it possible to conceive of music in terms of a Humboldt system, the latter in terms of an experiential approach. Both approaches, further, are not opposed to each other, but are complementary to some extent. There is, however, a distinction to be drawn between the bottom-up approach to auditory processing of environmental sounds and music, which is continuous and proceeding in real time, as against the top-down approach, which is proceeding at a level of mental representation by applying discrete symbolic labels to vibrational events. The distinction is discussed against the background of phylogenetic and ontogenetic claims, with a major focus on the innate auditory capabilities of the fetus and neonate and the gradual evolution from mere sensory perception of sound to sense-making and musical meaning. The latter, finally, is elaborated on the basis of the operational concepts of affordance and functional tone, thus bringing together some older contributions from ecology and biosemiotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Environmental Psychology)
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