Effect of Different Levels and Sources of Dietary Copper, Zinc and Manganese on the Performance and Immune and Redox Status of Turkeys
Department of Poultry Science, Faculty of Animal Bioengineering, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 5, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
Department of Biochemistry and Toxicology, Faculty of Animal Sciences and Bioeconomy, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 13, 20-950 Lublin, Poland
Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10, 10-748 Olsztyn, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 October 2019 / Revised: 25 October 2019 / Accepted: 28 October 2019 / Published: 30 October 2019
Companies producing turkey genetic (breeding) material recommend a much higher addition of Cu, Zn, and Mn to compound feed than recommended by the NRC. In practice, the poultry breeding companies in their feeding programs use an addition of these elements similar to the recommendations of breeding companies, without taking into account their content in the raw materials used for the production of feed. The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of the combined use of Cu, Zn, and Mn nanoparticles in the diet of slaughter turkeys with regard to potential reduction of the levels of these elements added to feed. Turkeys received the addition of Cu, Zn, and Mn in inorganic form or nanoparticles in amounts recommended by breeding companies, reduced to 10% of these recommendations or without the addition of these elements. The results of our research, showed that reducing the addition of these elements does not cause deterioration of performance and immunity of turkeys. It was also found that the addition of standard forms of these elements (inorganic forms) can be reduced without having to be replaced by nanoparticles.