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Open AccessArticle

Effect of Different Levels and Sources of Dietary Copper, Zinc and Manganese on the Performance and Immune and Redox Status of Turkeys

1
Department of Poultry Science, Faculty of Animal Bioengineering, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 5, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
2
Department of Biochemistry and Toxicology, Faculty of Animal Sciences and Bioeconomy, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 13, 20-950 Lublin, Poland
3
Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10, 10-748 Olsztyn, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2019, 9(11), 883; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9110883
Received: 3 October 2019 / Revised: 25 October 2019 / Accepted: 28 October 2019 / Published: 30 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Nutrition)
Companies producing turkey genetic (breeding) material recommend a much higher addition of Cu, Zn, and Mn to compound feed than recommended by the NRC. In practice, the poultry breeding companies in their feeding programs use an addition of these elements similar to the recommendations of breeding companies, without taking into account their content in the raw materials used for the production of feed. The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of the combined use of Cu, Zn, and Mn nanoparticles in the diet of slaughter turkeys with regard to potential reduction of the levels of these elements added to feed. Turkeys received the addition of Cu, Zn, and Mn in inorganic form or nanoparticles in amounts recommended by breeding companies, reduced to 10% of these recommendations or without the addition of these elements. The results of our research, showed that reducing the addition of these elements does not cause deterioration of performance and immunity of turkeys. It was also found that the addition of standard forms of these elements (inorganic forms) can be reduced without having to be replaced by nanoparticles.
The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of the combined use of Cu, Zn, and Mn nanoparticles in the diet of turkeys with regard to potential reduction of the levels of these elements added to feed. The experiment was carried out on turkeys’ hens assigned to four groups. Turkeys from the PC group received feed with the addition of inorganic forms of Cu, Zn, and Mn in the B.U.T. (British United Turkeys) recommended levels, from group IR received the addition in amounts reduced to 10% of the recommended levels, and from group NR received the addition of elements in the form of nanoparticles in the same amounts as in group IR. The turkeys from group NC received feed without the addition of these elements. The research showed that the addition of Cu, Zn, and Mn to turkey diets, in both inorganic forms and as nanoparticles, in quantities covering only 10% of B.U.T. recommendations had no adverse effect on growth performance or on the antioxidant and immune defense of turkeys. The changes in the redox status of the turkeys whose diet was not supplemented with Cu, Zn, and Mn indicate reduced oxidation processes in the tissues. View Full-Text
Keywords: copper; zinc; manganese; nanoparticles; turkeys copper; zinc; manganese; nanoparticles; turkeys
MDPI and ACS Style

Jankowski, J.; Ognik, K.; Kozłowski, K.; Stępniowska, A.; Zduńczyk, Z. Effect of Different Levels and Sources of Dietary Copper, Zinc and Manganese on the Performance and Immune and Redox Status of Turkeys. Animals 2019, 9, 883.

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