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Animals, Volume 6, Issue 5 (May 2016)

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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Androstenone on Leash Pulling and Jumping Up in Dogs
Animals 2016, 6(5), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani6050034
Received: 29 February 2016 / Revised: 2 May 2016 / Accepted: 5 May 2016 / Published: 9 May 2016
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Abstract
Dogs are relinquished to shelters due to behavioral problems, such as leash pulling and jumping up. Interomones are chemical cues produced by one species that elicit a response in a different species. We reported earlier that androstenone, a swine sex pheromone, acts as [...] Read more.
Dogs are relinquished to shelters due to behavioral problems, such as leash pulling and jumping up. Interomones are chemical cues produced by one species that elicit a response in a different species. We reported earlier that androstenone, a swine sex pheromone, acts as an interomone to reduce barking in dogs. Here we report two models using 10 dogs/study: a dog jumping and a dog walking model. For the leash-pulling model, each time the dog pulled on the leash the walker either did nothing (NOT), or sprayed the dog with water (H2O), androstenone + water (ANH), androstenone 0.1 µg/mL (AND1), or androstenone 1.0 µg/mL (AND2). The number of pulls during each walk was counted. For the jumping up model, each time the dog jumped the researcher did nothing (NOT), or sprayed the dog with H2O, ANH, AND1, or AND2. The number of jumps and the time between jumps were recorded. In Study 1, ANH, AND1, and AND2 each reduced leash pulling more than NOT and H2O (p< 0.01). In Study 2, all treatments were effective in reducing jumping up behavior. Androstenone reduced jumping up, but not beyond that elicited by a spray of water alone. We conclude that androstenone in multiple delivery vehicles reduced leash pulling. The burst of air intended as a disruptive stimulus in the correction sprays may be too harsh for more sensitive dogs, and as such use of these sprays is cautioned in these animals. For other dogs, this interomone can be used to stop some behavior immediately or as a part of a training program to reduce undesirable behavior. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Preventing and Investigating Horse-Related Human Injury and Fatality in Work and Non-Work Equestrian Environments: A Consideration of the Workplace Health and Safety Framework
Animals 2016, 6(5), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani6050033
Received: 18 November 2015 / Revised: 26 April 2016 / Accepted: 28 April 2016 / Published: 6 May 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2796 | PDF Full-text (231 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It has been suggested that one in five riders will be injured due to a fall from a horse, resulting in severe head or torso injuries. Attempts to reduce injury have primarily focussed on low level risk controls, such as helmets. In comparison, [...] Read more.
It has been suggested that one in five riders will be injured due to a fall from a horse, resulting in severe head or torso injuries. Attempts to reduce injury have primarily focussed on low level risk controls, such as helmets. In comparison, risk mitigation in high risk workplaces and sports is directed at more effective and preventative controls like training, consultation, safe work procedures, fit for purpose equipment and regular Workplace Health and Safety (WHS) monitoring. However, there has been no systematic consideration of the risk-reduction benefits of applying a WHS framework to reducing horse-related risks in workplaces, let alone competition or leisure contexts. In this article, we discuss the different dimensions of risk during human–horse interaction: the risk itself, animal, human and environmental factors and their combinations thereof. We consider the potential of the WHS framework as a tool for reducing (a) situation-specific hazards, and (b) the risks inherent in and arising from human–horse interactions. Whilst most—if not all—horses are unpredictable, the majority of horse-related injuries should be treated as preventable. The article concludes with a practical application of WHS to prevent horse-related injury by discussing effective evidence-based guidelines and regulatory monitoring for equestrian sectors. It suggests that the WHS framework has significant potential not only to reduce the occurrence and likelihood of horse-related human accident and injury, but to enable systematic accident analysis and investigation of horse-related adverse events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Horses and Risk)
Open AccessArticle
Changing Human-Animal Relationships in Sport: An Analysis of the UK and Australian Horse Racing Whips Debates
Animals 2016, 6(5), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani6050032
Received: 9 March 2016 / Revised: 11 April 2016 / Accepted: 28 April 2016 / Published: 3 May 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2259 | PDF Full-text (221 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Changing social values and new technologies have contributed to increasing media attention and debate about the acceptable use of animals in sport. This paper focuses on the use of the whip in thoroughbred horse racing. Those who defend its use argue it is [...] Read more.
Changing social values and new technologies have contributed to increasing media attention and debate about the acceptable use of animals in sport. This paper focuses on the use of the whip in thoroughbred horse racing. Those who defend its use argue it is a necessary tool needed for safety, correction and encouragement, and that it does not cause the horse any pain. For those who oppose its use, it is an instrument of cruelty. Media framing is employed to unpack the discourses played out in print and social media in the UK (2011) and Australia (2009) during key periods of the whip debate following the introduction of new whip rules. Media coverage for the period August 2014–August 2015 for both countries is also considered. This paper seeks to identify the perceptions of advocates and opponents of the whip as portrayed in conventional and social media in Australia and the UK, to consider if these perceptions have changed over time, and whose voices are heard in these platforms. This paper contributes to discussions on the impacts that media sites have either in reinforcing existing perspectives or creating new perspectives; and importantly how this impacts on equine welfare. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Impact of Providing Feed and/or Water on Performance, Physiology, and Behavior of Weaned Pigs during a 32-h Transport
Animals 2016, 6(5), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani6050031
Received: 25 February 2016 / Revised: 18 April 2016 / Accepted: 28 April 2016 / Published: 3 May 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1423 | PDF Full-text (510 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Transportation at weaning is a complex stressor made up of many factors, including withdrawal from feed and water, which can potentially negatively affect the health and welfare of pigs, especially those already experiencing weaning stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate [...] Read more.
Transportation at weaning is a complex stressor made up of many factors, including withdrawal from feed and water, which can potentially negatively affect the health and welfare of pigs, especially those already experiencing weaning stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of weaning and extended transport durations (up to 32 h), with and without the provision of feed and/or water, on pig welfare. Treatment groups included: pigs neither weaned nor transported, control (CON); weaned pigs transported and provided with feed and water (T+); weaned pigs transported without feed and water (T−); weaned pigs transported with only feed (T+F); and weaned pigs transported with only water provided (TRAN+W). The effect of transport (with and without feed and/or water) on weaned pigs was assessed using behavior, performance, and physiology. After a 32-h transport period, pigs transported without water lost markedly more weight than those transported with water ( p < 0.01). Furthermore, the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio was markedly higher in male pigs transported without water ( p < 0.05). Overall, transportation had a negative effect on pig well-being, especially when water was not provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pig Transport 2016)
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Open AccessArticle
Behavioral and Physiological Responses of Calves to Marshalling and Roping in a Simulated Rodeo Event
Animals 2016, 6(5), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani6050030
Received: 6 January 2016 / Revised: 31 March 2016 / Accepted: 25 April 2016 / Published: 28 April 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2252 | PDF Full-text (508 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rodeos are public events at which stockpeople face tests of their ability to manage cattle and horses, some of which relate directly to rangeland cattle husbandry. One of these is calf roping, in which a calf released from a chute is pursued by [...] Read more.
Rodeos are public events at which stockpeople face tests of their ability to manage cattle and horses, some of which relate directly to rangeland cattle husbandry. One of these is calf roping, in which a calf released from a chute is pursued by a horse and rider, who lassoes, lifts and drops the calf to the ground and finally ties it around the legs. Measurements were made of behavior and stress responses of ten rodeo-naïve calves marshalled by a horse and rider, and ten rodeo-experienced calves that were roped. Naïve calves marshalled by a horse and rider traversed the arena slowly, whereas rodeo-experienced calves ran rapidly until roped. Each activity was repeated once after two hours. Blood samples taken before and after each activity demonstrated increased cortisol, epinephrine and nor-epinephrine in both groups. However, there was no evidence of a continued increase in stress hormones in either group by the start of the repeated activity, suggesting that the elevated stress hormones were not a response to a prolonged effect of the initial blood sampling. It is concluded that both the marshalling of calves naïve to the roping chute by stockpeople and the roping and dropping of experienced calves are stressful in a simulated rodeo calf roping event. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
“Vicious, Aggressive Bird Stalks Cyclist”: The Australian Magpie (Cracticus tibicen) in the News
Animals 2016, 6(5), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani6050029
Received: 12 February 2016 / Revised: 14 April 2016 / Accepted: 21 April 2016 / Published: 26 April 2016
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Abstract
The Australian Magpie ( Cracticus tibicen ) is a common bird found in urban Australian environments where its nest defense behavior during spring brings it into conflict with humans. This article explores the role of print media in covering this conflict. Leximancer software [...] Read more.
The Australian Magpie ( Cracticus tibicen ) is a common bird found in urban Australian environments where its nest defense behavior during spring brings it into conflict with humans. This article explores the role of print media in covering this conflict. Leximancer software was used to analyze newspaper reports about the Australian Magpie from a sample of 634 news stories, letters-to-the editor and opinion pieces, published in newspapers from around Australia between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2014. The results confirm that stories about these birds are primarily published in the daily regional and weekly suburban press, and that the dominant story frame concerns the risk of “swooping” behavior to cyclists and pedestrians from birds protecting their nests during the spring breeding season. The most prominent sources used by journalists are local and state government representatives, as well as members of the public. The results show that the “swooping season” has become a normal part of the annual news cycle for these publications, with the implication that discourse surrounding the Australian Magpie predominantly concerns the risk these birds pose to humans, and ignores their decline in non-urban environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wildlife-human interactions in urban landscapes)
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Open AccessArticle
Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens
Animals 2016, 6(5), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani6050028
Received: 31 January 2016 / Revised: 2 April 2016 / Accepted: 6 April 2016 / Published: 26 April 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1928 | PDF Full-text (840 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available [...] Read more.
In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources). These were: apron (0–10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments); enriched belt (10–50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided); and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture). Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND) of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range areas tend to be under-utilized in commercial free-range flocks and suggest positive relationships between range use, feather condition and increased behavioural opportunities and decline in the use of range in cold and/or damp conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Welfare)
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Open AccessArticle
Basing Turkey Lighting Programs on Broiler Research: A Good Idea? A Comparison of 18 Daylength Effects on Broiler and Turkey Welfare
Animals 2016, 6(5), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani6050027
Received: 22 February 2016 / Revised: 15 April 2016 / Accepted: 18 April 2016 / Published: 25 April 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1775 | PDF Full-text (2808 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Daylength used as a management tool has powerful implications on the welfare of both broilers and turkeys. Near-constant light results in many detrimental impacts, including lack of behavioural rhythms and circadian melatonin rhythms. Both are suggestive that sleep fragmentation could result in birds [...] Read more.
Daylength used as a management tool has powerful implications on the welfare of both broilers and turkeys. Near-constant light results in many detrimental impacts, including lack of behavioural rhythms and circadian melatonin rhythms. Both are suggestive that sleep fragmentation could result in birds reared on long photoperiods, which can lead to the same negative health and physiological responses as total sleep deprivation. An indirect comparison of the welfare implications of graded levels of daylength on broilers and turkeys clearly indicate that long daylengths depress welfare by increasing mortality, reducing mobility, increasing ocular pathologies and changing behaviour in both species. Furthermore, long daylengths change melatonin secretion patterns and eliminate behavioural and melatonin circadian rhythms, which were measured in broilers in these works. However, feather pecking in turkeys was reduced when birds were exposed to long daylengths. Exactly how much darkness should be included in a management program to maximize welfare will depend on the species, the age of marketing, and in turkeys, bird gender. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Welfare)
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Open AccessArticle
Cecil: A Moment or a Movement? Analysis of Media Coverage of the Death of a Lion, Panthera leo
Animals 2016, 6(5), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani6050026
Received: 23 March 2016 / Revised: 12 April 2016 / Accepted: 15 April 2016 / Published: 25 April 2016
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 8392 | PDF Full-text (2406 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The killing of a satellite-tagged male lion by a trophy hunter in Zimbabwe in July 2015 provoked an unprecedented media reaction. We analyse the global media response to the trophy hunting of the lion, nicknamed “Cecil”, a study animal in a long-term project [...] Read more.
The killing of a satellite-tagged male lion by a trophy hunter in Zimbabwe in July 2015 provoked an unprecedented media reaction. We analyse the global media response to the trophy hunting of the lion, nicknamed “Cecil”, a study animal in a long-term project run by Oxford University’s Wildlife Conservation Research Unit (WildCRU). We collaborated with a media-monitoring company to investigate the development of the media coverage spatially and temporally. Relevant articles were identified using a Boolean search for the terms Cecil AND lion in 127 languages. Stories about Cecil the Lion in the editorial media increased from approximately 15 per day to nearly 12,000 at its peak, and mentions of Cecil the Lion in social media reached 87,533 at its peak. We found that, while there were clear regional differences in the level of media saturation of the Cecil story, the patterns of the development of the coverage of this story were remarkably similar across the globe, and that there was no evidence of a lag between the social media and the editorial media. Further, all the main social media platforms appeared to react in synchrony. This story appears to have spread synchronously across media channels and geographically across the globe over the span of about two days. For lion conservation in particular, and perhaps for wildlife conservation more generally, we speculate that the atmosphere may have been changed significantly. We consider the possible reasons why this incident provoked a reaction unprecedented in the conservation sector. Full article
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