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Changes of Plasma Fatty Acids in Four Lipid Classes to Understand Energy Metabolism at Different Levels of Non-Esterified Fatty Acid (NEFA) in Dairy Cows

Department of Animal Medicine, Production and Health, University of Padova, Viale dell’Università 16, 35020 Legnaro, Italy
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Animals 2020, 10(8), 1410; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10081410
Received: 18 June 2020 / Revised: 10 August 2020 / Accepted: 10 August 2020 / Published: 13 August 2020
Dairy cows in the transition period require energy for fetal growth and milk production. In this phase, energy requirement exceeds the amount available for the animal, developing a negative energy balance. Numerous metabolic processes are involved to improve the energy requirement, in particular the mobilization of adipose tissue occurs. Dairy cows with an inadequate adaptive response to the negative energy balance can develop metabolic diseases such as subclinical ketosis. The purpose of the present study was to identify new biomarkers among the plasma fatty acids (FAs) through the use of thin layer chromatography and gas chromatographic techniques (TLC-GC). Early detection of excessive lipomobilization could improve animal health and reduce economic losses on farms. The current study determined the FA concentrations of four plasma lipid classes in plasma, in two groups of cows with different degrees of lipid mobilization in order to obtain biomarker for an early diagnosis of metabolic diseases.
The transition period is a central moment in dairy cows breeding because metabolic disorders may occur in relation to a dramatic increase in energy demand. This research aimed to identify new biomarkers for the diagnosis of hyperketonemia in bovine in early lactation phase with different value of plasmatic non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA). The profile of plasma fatty acids (FAs) divided into four lipid classes was evaluated using thin layer chromatography and gas chromatographic techniques (TLC-GC). A group of 60 multiparous Holstein–Friesian dairy cows were recruited in the present study. Blood samples were collected from the coccygeal vein and NEFA and the β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) were evaluated. All animals were divided in 2 groups based on NEFA, NEFA0 group had as mean value 0.24 ± 0.12 mEq/L and NEFA1 group had as mean value 0.87 ± 0.23 mEq/L. Plasma FA concentrations were analyzed separately in free fatty acids, cholesterol esters, phospholipids and triglycerides. Six FAs demonstrated a predictive value in the hyperketonemic dairy cows. In the free fatty acid class, the predictive FAs were C14:0 (AUC = 0.77), C18:1 ω 9 (AUC = 0.72), C18:1 ω 7 (AUC = 0.70) and C18:3 ω 3 (AUC = 0.68). In the phospholipids class the predictive parameters were C12:0 (AUC = 0.78) and C8:0 (AUC = 0.73). In cholesterol, esters and triglycerides lipidic classes no FA had a predictive function. View Full-Text
Keywords: transition period; non-esterified fatty acid; β-hydroxybutyrate; fatty acids; lipid class; hyperketonemia transition period; non-esterified fatty acid; β-hydroxybutyrate; fatty acids; lipid class; hyperketonemia
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Tessari, R.; Berlanda, M.; Morgante, M.; Badon, T.; Gianesella, M.; Mazzotta, E.; Contiero, B.; Fiore, E. Changes of Plasma Fatty Acids in Four Lipid Classes to Understand Energy Metabolism at Different Levels of Non-Esterified Fatty Acid (NEFA) in Dairy Cows. Animals 2020, 10, 1410.

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