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Parachlamydia acanthamoebae Detected during a Pneumonia Outbreak in Southeastern Finland, in 2017–2018

1
Department of Virology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland
2
Children’s Hospital, University of Helsinki, FI-00029 Helsinki, Finland
3
Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden
4
Biodiversity Unit, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland
5
Department of Internal Medicine, Kymenlaakso Central Hospital, FI-48210 Kotka, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2019, 7(5), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7050141
Received: 18 April 2019 / Revised: 9 May 2019 / Accepted: 14 May 2019 / Published: 17 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chlamydiae and Chlamydia like Bacteria)
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Abstract

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common disease responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. However, the definite etiology of CAP often remains unresolved, suggesting that unknown agents of pneumonia remain to be identified. The recently discovered members of the order Chlamydiales, Chlamydia-related bacteria (CRB), are considered as possible emerging agents of CAP. Parachlamydia acanthamoebae is the most studied candidate. It survives and replicates inside free-living amoeba, which it might potentially use as a vehicle to infect animals and humans. A Mycoplasma pneumoniae outbreak was observed in Kymenlaakso region in Southeastern Finland during August 2017–January 2018. We determined the occurrence of Chlamydiales bacteria and their natural host, free-living amoeba in respiratory specimens collected during this outbreak with molecular methods. Altogether, 22/278 (7.9%) of the samples contained Chlamydiales DNA. By sequence analysis, majority of the CRBs detected were members of the Parachlamydiaceae family. Amoebal DNA was not detected within the sample material. Our study further proposes that Parachlamydiaceae could be a potential agent causing atypical CAP in children and adolescents. View Full-Text
Keywords: Chlamydia-related bacteria; Parachlamydia acanthamoebae; Chlamydia pneumoniae; pneumonia; respiratory tract infections; disease outbreak; nucleic acid amplification test Chlamydia-related bacteria; Parachlamydia acanthamoebae; Chlamydia pneumoniae; pneumonia; respiratory tract infections; disease outbreak; nucleic acid amplification test
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Hokynar, K.; Kurkela, S.; Nieminen, T.; Saxen, H.; Vesterinen, E.J.; Mannonen, L.; Pietikäinen, R.; Puolakkainen, M. Parachlamydia acanthamoebae Detected during a Pneumonia Outbreak in Southeastern Finland, in 2017–2018. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 141.

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