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Impact of Binge Alcohol Intoxication on the Humoral Immune Response during Burkholderia spp. Infections

1
Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011, USA
2
Pathogen & Microbiome Institute (PMI), Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2019, 7(5), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7050125
Received: 20 March 2019 / Revised: 2 May 2019 / Accepted: 5 May 2019 / Published: 9 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Medical Microbiology)
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Abstract

Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis can occur in healthy humans, yet binge alcohol use is progressively being recognized as a major risk factor. Currently, no experimental studies have investigated the effects of binge alcohol on the adaptive immune system during an active infection. In this study, we used B. thailandensis and B. vietnamiensis, to investigate the impact of a single binge alcohol episode on the humoral response during infection. Eight-week-old female C57BL/6 mice were administered alcohol comparable to human binge drinking (4.4 g/kg) or PBS intraperitoneally 30 min before intranasal infection. Mice infected with B. thailandensis had a 100% survival rate, while those infected with B. vietnamiensis had a 33% survivability rate when a binge alcohol dose was administered. B. thailandensis was detected in blood of mice administered alcohol at only 7 days post infection (PI), while those infected with B. vietnamiensis and receiving alcohol were found throughout the 28-day infection as well as in tissues at day 28 PI. Binge alcohol elevated IgM and delayed IgG specific to the whole cell lysate (WCL) of B. vietnamiensis but not B. thailandensis infections. Differences in immunogenicity of B. pseudomallei near-neighbors provide a framework for novel insights into the effects of binge alcohol’s suppression of the humoral immune response that can cause opportunistic infections in otherwise healthy hosts. View Full-Text
Keywords: Burkholderia; melioidosis; alcohol; adaptive immune system; antibodies; immunoglobulins; binge alcohol; humoral; virulence Burkholderia; melioidosis; alcohol; adaptive immune system; antibodies; immunoglobulins; binge alcohol; humoral; virulence
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Moreno, R.M.; Jimenez, V., Jr; Monroy, F.P. Impact of Binge Alcohol Intoxication on the Humoral Immune Response during Burkholderia spp. Infections. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 125.

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