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Open AccessArticle

Inflammatory Immune Responses in Patients with Tick-Borne Encephalitis: Dynamics and Association with the Outcome of the Disease

1
Department of Infectious Diseases, University Medical Center Ljubljana, Japljeva 2, 1525 Ljubljana, Slovenia
2
Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Vrazov trg 2, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
3
Institute for Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Vrazov trg 2, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
4
Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics, Natural Sciences and Information Technologies, University of Primorska, Glagoljaška 8, 6000 Koper, Slovenia
5
Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Zaloška 4, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
6
Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Immunology, Center for Immunology and Inflammatory Diseases, Masachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2019, 7(11), 514; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7110514
Received: 26 September 2019 / Revised: 17 October 2019 / Accepted: 29 October 2019 / Published: 31 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Vector Borne Infections: A Novel Threat for Global Health)
Information on the association of inflammatory immune responses and disease outcome after tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is limited. In the present study, we assessed the levels of 24 cytokines/chemokines associated with innate and adaptive immune responses in matched serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of 81 patients at first visit, and in serum at follow-up time points. Serum levels of several cytokines/chemokines obtained during the meningoencephalitic phase of TBE differed compared to the levels at a follow-up visit 2 months later; several significant differences were also found in cytokine/chemokine levels in serum at 2 months compared to the last time point, 2–7 years after acute illness. Cytokines/chemokines levels in CSF or serum obtained at the time of acute illness or serum levels obtained 2 months after the onset of TBE did not have predictive value for an unfavorable outcome 2–7 years later. In contrast, serum levels of mediators associated with Th17 responses were lower in patients with unfavorable outcome whereas those associated with other adaptive or innate immune responses were higher at the last visit in those with an unfavorable outcome. These findings provide new insights into the immunopathogenesis of TBE and implicate inflammatory immune responses with post-encephalitic syndrome years after the initial infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: tick-borne encephalitis; outcome; post-encephalitic syndrome; inflammatory mediators; cytokines; chemokines; immunopathogenesis; innate immune responses; adaptive immune responses tick-borne encephalitis; outcome; post-encephalitic syndrome; inflammatory mediators; cytokines; chemokines; immunopathogenesis; innate immune responses; adaptive immune responses
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Bogovič, P.; Lusa, L.; Korva, M.; Lotrič-Furlan, S.; Resman-Rus, K.; Pavletič, M.; Avšič-Županc, T.; Strle, K.; Strle, F. Inflammatory Immune Responses in Patients with Tick-Borne Encephalitis: Dynamics and Association with the Outcome of the Disease. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 514.

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