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The Prevalence of HSV, HHV-6, HPV and Mycoplasma genitalium in Chlamydia trachomatis positive and Chlamydia trachomatis Negative Urogenital Samples among Young Women in Finland
Open AccessArticle

Effect of Sugars on Chlamydia trachomatis Infectivity

1
FaBiT Department, University of Bologna, Via Irnerio 42, 40126 Bologna, Italy
2
Microbiology, DIMES, University of Bologna, St. Orsola Hospital, Via Massarenti, 9, 40138 Bologna, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Pathogens 2020, 9(4), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9040298
Received: 25 March 2020 / Revised: 9 April 2020 / Accepted: 16 April 2020 / Published: 17 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chlamydia trachomatis Infections)
Background. Previous works suggest that sugars can have a beneficial effect on C. trachomatis (CT) survival and virulence. In this study, we investigated the effect of different sugars on CT infectivity, elucidating some of the molecular mechanisms behind CT-sugar interaction. Methods. CT infectivity was investigated on HeLa cells after 2 hour-incubation of elementary bodies (EBs) with glucose, sucrose, or mannitol solutions (0.5, 2.5, 5.0 mM). The effect of sugars on EB membrane fluidity was investigated by fluorescence anisotropy measurement, whereas the changes in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure were examined by cytofluorimetric analysis. By means of a Western blot, we explored the phosphorylation state of Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) in HeLa cells infected with EBs pre-incubated with sugars. Results. All sugar solutions significantly increased CT infectivity on epithelial cells, acting directly on the EB structure. Sugars induced a significant increase of EB membrane fluidity, leading to changes in LPS membrane exposure. Especially after incubation with sucrose and mannitol, EBs led to a higher FAK phosphorylation, enhancing the activation of anti-apoptotic and proliferative signals in the host cells. Conclusions. Sugars can increase CT infectivity and virulence, by modulating the expression/exposure of chlamydial membrane ligands. Further in-depth studies are needed to better understand the molecular mechanisms involved. View Full-Text
Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis; sugars; mannitol; sucrose; glucose; elementary bodies; FAK; membranes; LPS Chlamydia trachomatis; sugars; mannitol; sucrose; glucose; elementary bodies; FAK; membranes; LPS
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Marziali, G.; Marangoni, A.; Foschi, C.; Re, M.C.; Calonghi, N. Effect of Sugars on Chlamydia trachomatis Infectivity. Pathogens 2020, 9, 298.

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