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Janthinobacterium lividum as An Emerging Pathogenic Bacterium Affecting Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Fisheries in Korea

Laboratory of Aquatic Biomedicine, College of Veterinary Medicine and Research Institute for Veterinary Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
Department of Aquaculture, Korea National College of Agriculture and Fisheries, Jeonju 54874, Korea
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2019, 8(3), 146;
Received: 25 June 2019 / Revised: 6 September 2019 / Accepted: 8 September 2019 / Published: 11 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Infectious Diseases in Aquaculture)
Janthinobacterium spp. are normally considered non-pathogenic, and few pathogenesis-related studies have been reported. Here, we report the first isolation of Janthinobacterium lividum in Korea as a pathogenic bacterium infecting rainbow trout. Mass mortality was observed at one rainbow trout hatchery, and dead fish were necropsied. Gram-negative, nonmotile, rod-shaped bacteria that grew on Cytophaga agar were isolated. A specific violet pigmentation was observed after 7 days of cultivation, and the species were characterized on the basis of the analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Because no research has focused so far on the pathogenicity of these bacteria, our study was directed to their pathogenic role based on infection-induced histopathology. Examination of stained tissue sections revealed severe renal bacteraemia and tubule degeneration. Other tissue sections, including sections from the liver and the spleen, were relatively clear. The measured half-maximal lethal dose (LD50) was approximately 3 × 105 colony-forming units/fish, suggesting that this bacterium may be an opportunistic pathogen in rainbow trout fisheries. Since the bacterium commonly dwells in soil and most water for rainbow trout fisheries in Korea is supplied from ground water, the bacteria may naturally flow into the aquatic environment. Therefore, recognition of any pathogenic role of J. lividum is important for the prevention of disease in aquaculture. View Full-Text
Keywords: Janthinobacterium lividum; Oncorhynchus mykiss; Korea; pathogen Janthinobacterium lividum; Oncorhynchus mykiss; Korea; pathogen
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Oh, W.T.; Giri, S.S.; Yun, S.; Kim, H.J.; Kim, S.G.; Kim, S.W.; Kang, J.W.; Han, S.J.; Kwon, J.; Jun, J.W.; Park, S.C. Janthinobacterium lividum as An Emerging Pathogenic Bacterium Affecting Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Fisheries in Korea. Pathogens 2019, 8, 146.

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