Next Article in Journal
Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Proteins in Flavivirus Replication and Assembly Complexes
Previous Article in Journal
Janthinobacterium lividum as An Emerging Pathogenic Bacterium Affecting Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Fisheries in Korea
Previous Article in Special Issue
Airway Epithelial Derived Cytokines and Chemokines and Their Role in the Immune Response to Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection
Open AccessReview

Contribution of Resident Memory CD8+ T Cells to Protective Immunity against Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Their Impact on Vaccine Design

1
Millennium Institute on Immunology and Immunotherapy, Departamento de Genética Molecular y Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 8331010, Chile
2
Departamento de Endocrinología, Escuela de Medicina, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 8331010, Chile
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2019, 8(3), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8030147
Received: 25 July 2019 / Revised: 6 September 2019 / Accepted: 7 September 2019 / Published: 11 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus-Host Interactions of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV))
Worldwide, human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common etiological agent for acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI). RSV-ALRI is the major cause of hospital admissions in young children, and it can cause in-hospital deaths in children younger than six months old. Therefore, RSV remains one of the pathogens deemed most important for the generation of a vaccine. On the other hand, the effectiveness of a vaccine depends on the development of immunological memory against the pathogenic agent of interest. This memory is achieved by long-lived memory T cells, based on the establishment of an effective immune response to viral infections when subsequent exposures to the pathogen take place. Memory T cells can be classified into three subsets according to their expression of lymphoid homing receptors: central memory cells (TCM), effector memory cells (TEM) and resident memory T cells (TRM). The latter subset consists of cells that are permanently found in non-lymphoid tissues and are capable of recognizing antigens and mounting an effective immune response at those sites. TRM cells activate both innate and adaptive immune responses, thus establishing a robust and rapid response characterized by the production of large amounts of effector molecules. TRM cells can also recognize antigenically unrelated pathogens and trigger an innate-like alarm with the recruitment of other immune cells. It is noteworthy that this rapid and effective immune response induced by TRM cells make these cells an interesting aim in the design of vaccination strategies in order to establish TRM cell populations to prevent respiratory infectious diseases. Here, we discuss the biogenesis of TRM cells, their contribution to the resolution of respiratory viral infections and the induction of TRM cells, which should be considered for the rational design of new vaccines against RSV. View Full-Text
Keywords: human respiratory syncytial virus; human orthopneumovirus; respiratory infection; resident memory T cells; vaccine development human respiratory syncytial virus; human orthopneumovirus; respiratory infection; resident memory T cells; vaccine development
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Retamal-Díaz, A.; Covián, C.; Pacheco, G.A.; Castiglione-Matamala, A.T.; Bueno, S.M.; González, P.A.; Kalergis, A.M. Contribution of Resident Memory CD8+ T Cells to Protective Immunity against Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Their Impact on Vaccine Design. Pathogens 2019, 8, 147.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop