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Bacteriophages in Natural and Artificial Environments

Department of Physiology, Anatomy & Microbiology, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC 3086, Australia
Department of Pharmacy & Biomedical Sciences, La Trobe University, Bendigo, VIC 3550, Australia
Division of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Yokohama National University, Yokohama 240-8501, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors equally contributed to this work.
These authors equally contributed to this work.
Pathogens 2019, 8(3), 100;
Received: 9 June 2019 / Revised: 10 July 2019 / Accepted: 10 July 2019 / Published: 12 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Waterborne Zoonotic Pathogens)
Bacteriophages (phages) are biological entities that have attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. They have been reported as the most abundant biological entities on the planet and their ability to impact the composition of bacterial communities is of great interest. In this review, we aim to explore where phages exist in natural and artificial environments and how they impact communities. The natural environment in this review will focus on the human body, soils, and the marine environment. In these naturally occurring environments there is an abundance of phages suggesting a role in the maintenance of bacterial community homeostasis. The artificial environment focuses on wastewater treatment plants, industrial processes, followed by pharmaceutical formulations. As in natural environments, the existence of bacteria in manmade wastewater treatment plants and industrial processes inevitably attracts phages. The presence of phages in these environments can inhibit the bacteria required for efficient water treatment or food production. Alternatively, they can have a positive impact by eliminating recalcitrant organisms. Finally, we conclude by describing how phages can be manipulated or formulated into pharmaceutical products in the laboratory for use in natural or artificial environments. View Full-Text
Keywords: bacteriophage; environment; human body; phage therapy; phage biocontrol; soil; water; wastewater; pharmaceutical products bacteriophage; environment; human body; phage therapy; phage biocontrol; soil; water; wastewater; pharmaceutical products
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MDPI and ACS Style

Batinovic, S.; Wassef, F.; Knowler, S.A.; Rice, D.T.F.; Stanton, C.R.; Rose, J.; Tucci, J.; Nittami, T.; Vinh, A.; Drummond, G.R.; Sobey, C.G.; Chan, H.T.; Seviour, R.J.; Petrovski, S.; Franks, A.E. Bacteriophages in Natural and Artificial Environments. Pathogens 2019, 8, 100.

AMA Style

Batinovic S, Wassef F, Knowler SA, Rice DTF, Stanton CR, Rose J, Tucci J, Nittami T, Vinh A, Drummond GR, Sobey CG, Chan HT, Seviour RJ, Petrovski S, Franks AE. Bacteriophages in Natural and Artificial Environments. Pathogens. 2019; 8(3):100.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Batinovic, Steven, Flavia Wassef, Sarah A. Knowler, Daniel T.F. Rice, Cassandra R. Stanton, Jayson Rose, Joseph Tucci, Tadashi Nittami, Antony Vinh, Grant R. Drummond, Christopher G. Sobey, Hiu Tat Chan, Robert J. Seviour, Steve Petrovski, and Ashley E. Franks. 2019. "Bacteriophages in Natural and Artificial Environments" Pathogens 8, no. 3: 100.

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