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The Hidden Cost of Modern Medical Interventions: How Medical Advances Have Shaped the Prevalence of Human Fungal Disease

Institute of Immunology & Immunotherapy, Institute of Microbiology & Infection, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
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Pathogens 2019, 8(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8020045
Received: 8 February 2019 / Revised: 28 March 2019 / Accepted: 29 March 2019 / Published: 4 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunology of Fungal Infections)
Life expectancy in the West is the highest it has ever been, due to the introduction of better hygiene practices and sophisticated medical interventions for cancer, autoimmunity and infectious disease. With these modern advances, a rise in the prevalence of opportunistic infections has also been observed. These include several fungal infections, which present a particular clinical challenge due to the lack of fungal vaccines, limited diagnostics and increasing antifungal drug resistance. This mini-review outlines how modern-day clinical practices have shaped the recent increase in fungal diseases observed in the last few decades. We discuss new research that has implicated the use of immune-modulating drugs in the enhanced susceptibility of vulnerable patients to life-threatening fungal infections. View Full-Text
Keywords: fungi; antibiotics; corticosteroids; ibrutinib; Candida; Aspergillus; macrophage fungi; antibiotics; corticosteroids; ibrutinib; Candida; Aspergillus; macrophage
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Clark, C.; Drummond, R.A. The Hidden Cost of Modern Medical Interventions: How Medical Advances Have Shaped the Prevalence of Human Fungal Disease. Pathogens 2019, 8, 45.

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