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Pathogens 2019, 8(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8010019

Non-typhoidal Salmonella in the Pig Production Chain: A Comprehensive Analysis of Its Impact on Human Health

1
[email protected], Laboratório de Microbiologia, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Portugal; Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira nº 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
2
Faculdade de Ciências da Nutrição e Alimentação, Universidade do Porto, Portugal; Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200 Porto, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 December 2018 / Revised: 21 January 2019 / Accepted: 24 January 2019 / Published: 29 January 2019
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Abstract

Salmonellosis remains one of the most frequent foodborne zoonosis, constituting a worldwide major public health concern. The most frequent sources of human infections are food products of animal origin, being pork meat one of the most relevant. Currently, particular pig food production well-adapted and persistent Salmonella enterica serotypes (e.g., Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:-, Salmonella Derby and Salmonella Rissen) are frequently reported associated with human infections in diverse industrialized countries. The dissemination of those clinically-relevant Salmonella serotypes/clones has been related to the intensification of pig production chain and to an increase in the international trade of pigs and pork meat. Those changes that occurred over the years along the food chain may act as food chain drivers leading to new problems and challenges, compromising the successful control of Salmonella. Among those, the emergence of antibiotic resistance in non-typhoidal Salmonella associated with antimicrobials use in the pig production chain is of special concern for public health. The transmission of pig-related multidrug-resistant Salmonella serotypes, clones and/or genetic elements carrying clinically-relevant antibiotic resistance genes, frequently associated with metal tolerance genes, from pigs and pork meat to humans, has been reported and highlights the contribution of different drivers to the antibiotic resistance burden. Gathered data strengthen the need for global mandatory interventions and strategies for effective Salmonella control and surveillance across the pig production chain. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of the role of pig and pork meat in human salmonellosis at a global scale, highlighting the main factors contributing to the persistence and dissemination of clinically-relevant pig-related Salmonella serotypes and clones. View Full-Text
Keywords: Salmonella; pig production; pork meat; foodborne transmission; antimicrobial resistance; clones; S. Typhimurium; S. 1,4,[5],12:i:-; S. Derby; S. Rissen Salmonella; pig production; pork meat; foodborne transmission; antimicrobial resistance; clones; S. Typhimurium; S. 1,4,[5],12:i:-; S. Derby; S. Rissen
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Campos, J.; Mourão, J.; Peixe, L.; Antunes, P. Non-typhoidal Salmonella in the Pig Production Chain: A Comprehensive Analysis of Its Impact on Human Health. Pathogens 2019, 8, 19.

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