Comparison of Industrial Quenching Oils
- Cooling curve (including the cooling rate and time to cool to certain temperatures) according to ISO 9950. This part of the experiment is based on .
- V-value was developed by Tamura, and reflects the steel grade or, more appropriately, its CCT curves .
- Profile of hardness and microstructure on a section through a cylinder made from EN C35E steel for a particular oil.
2. Identification of an Appropriate Criterion for Assessing of Quenching Oils
2.1. Comparison of Quenching Oils Based on Hardness and Microstructure of EN C35E Steel
2.2. Cooling Curves According to ISO 9950
2.3. Hardening Power
2.4. Assessment Based on the Area under the Cooling Curve Depending on Temperature
3. Effect of Water Content on Cooling Efficiency of Selected Oils
4. Monitoring Ageing Oil in a Hardening Shop
5. Measurement of Flash Point and Fire Point of Quenching Oils
6.1. As-Quenched Hardness
6.2. Cooling Curves of Quenching Oils
6.3. Hardening Power
6.4. Area under the Cooling Curve
- The most relevant criterion for the hardening power of an oil is the area under the cooling curve, which characterizes its ability to remove heat from a part. The criterion must be evaluated within a temperature interval governed by the type of steel. The area between 600 °C and 300 °C is the most versatile option that is appropriate for the majority of structural steels.
- The HP criterion is useful for comparing medium-speed and fast oils. HP is less sensitive to changes in quenching characteristics than the area under the curve.
- The V-value appears to be the least suitable for this purpose, mainly because it is complicated to evaluate. In addition, one must always tailor the experiment to the materials and products to be quenched.
- In our experiment, the main criterion was the core hardness of a steel cylinder from EN C35E. Specimens with a larger diameter and a steel with higher hardenability would be a better choice. The authors recommend a cylinder of 50 mm diameter from EN 42CrMo4 steel.
Informed Consent Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|CS Noro MO 46||Paramo TK 46||Durixol W72||Paramo TK 22||Houghto Quench C120|
|HV1 Mean and Standard Deviation|
|1||219 ± 3||238 ± 3||223 ± 4||227 ± 2||228 ± 3|
|3||217 ± 3||228 ± 3||219 ± 4||222 ± 3||220 ± 3|
|5||215 ± 4||226 ± 4||219 ± 3||225 ± 3||215 ± 3|
|7||214 ± 3||226 ± 3||213 ± 2||217 ± 3||218 ± 3|
|10||207 ± 4||215 ± 3||212 ± 4||218 ± 2||215 ± 4|
|Oil||CRmax [°C/s]||Temperature When Reaching CRmax [°C]|
|CS Noro Mo 46||73||603|
|Paramo TK 22||104.5||636|
|Paramo TK 46||74||574|
|Houghto Quench C120||83||537|
|Houghto Quench C120||659|
|CS Noro MO 46||229|
|Paramo TK 22||866|
|Paramo TK 46||515|
|CS Noro MO 46||1||1||0.98||0.96|
|Paramo TK 22||1||0.73||0.77||1|
|Paramo TK 46||0.87||1||1||1|
|Houghto Quench C120||0.68||0.74||1||1|
|Oil||Flash Point [°C]|
|CS Noro MO 46||220|
|Paramo TK 22||191|
|Paramo TK 46||216|
|Houghto Quench C120||196|
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Hájek, J.; Dlouha, Z.; Průcha, V. Comparison of Industrial Quenching Oils. Metals 2021, 11, 250. https://doi.org/10.3390/met11020250
Hájek J, Dlouha Z, Průcha V. Comparison of Industrial Quenching Oils. Metals. 2021; 11(2):250. https://doi.org/10.3390/met11020250Chicago/Turabian Style
Hájek, Jiří, Zaneta Dlouha, and Vojtěch Průcha. 2021. "Comparison of Industrial Quenching Oils" Metals 11, no. 2: 250. https://doi.org/10.3390/met11020250