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Open AccessReview

What Is Performance? A Scoping Review of Performance Outcomes as Study Endpoints in Athletics

Athletics Research Centre, Linköping University, 581 83 Linköping, Sweden
Athletics Australia, Melbourne 3206, Australia
Swedish Athletics Association, 120 30 Stockholm, Sweden
Athlete Availability Program, Australian Institute of Sport, Bruce 2617, Australia
Australian Collaboration for Research into Injury in Sport and Its Prevention (ACRISP), Melbourne 3086, Australia
University of Canberra Research Institute for Sport and Exercise (UCRISE), Canberra 2617, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sports 2019, 7(3), 66;
Received: 11 January 2019 / Revised: 7 March 2019 / Accepted: 11 March 2019 / Published: 16 March 2019
Purpose: This review set out to summarise, define, and provide future direction towards the use of performance outcome measures as endpoints in research performed at international benchmark events in athletics. Methods: Scoping review methodology was applied through a search of the PubMed and Sports Discus databases and a systematic article selection procedure. Articles that met the inclusion criteria underwent triage for further quantitative and qualitative analysis. A concept chart was generated to describe the methods by which performance had been measured and introduce descriptive labels for theoretical and practical application. Results: None of 2972 articles primarily identified from the database search met the triage standards for quantitative data extraction. Eleven articles were included in a qualitative analysis. The analysis identified the common methods by which performance has been measured, reported and analysed. The resulting concept chart collates labels from the qualitative analysis (categories, themes, and constructs) with sports practice labels (performance metrics, framework, and analysis). Conclusions: The state of knowledge concerning methods to employ performance metrics as endpoints in studies performed at major competitions in athletics has been summarised. Constructing a methodology that combines the performance metric variables (continuous and ordinal) that are currently utilised as endpoints remains a challenge. View Full-Text
Keywords: performance evaluation; success; achievement; athletic performance; ranking performance evaluation; success; achievement; athletic performance; ranking
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Raysmith, B.P.; Jacobsson, J.; Drew, M.K.; Timpka, T. What Is Performance? A Scoping Review of Performance Outcomes as Study Endpoints in Athletics. Sports 2019, 7, 66.

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