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The Role of Solid Lubricants for Brake Friction Materials

BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, 12200 Berlin, Germany
ISPMS Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, 634021 Tomsk, Russia
Department of Metal Physics, Tomsk State University, 634050 Tomsk, Russia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Thomas W. Scharf
Lubricants 2016, 4(1), 5;
Received: 11 December 2015 / Revised: 18 February 2016 / Accepted: 19 February 2016 / Published: 29 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribofilms and Solid Lubrication)
PDF [748 KB, uploaded 29 February 2016]


This review article comprises of three parts. Firstly, reports of brake manufacturers on the beneficial impact of solid lubricants for pad formulations are surveyed. Secondly, since tribofilms were identified to play a crucial role in friction stabilization and wear reduction, the knowledge about tribofilm structures formed during automotive braking was reviewed comprehensively. Finally, a model for simulating the sliding behavior of tribofilms is suggested and a review on modelling efforts with different model structures related to real tribofilms will be presented. Although the variety of friction composites involved in commercial brake systems is very broad, striking similarities were observed in respect to tribofilm nanostructures. Thus, a generalization of the tribofilm nanostructure is suggested and prerequisites for smooth sliding performance and minimal wear rates have been identified. A minimum of 13 vol % of soft inclusions embedded in an iron oxide based tribofilm is crucial for obtaining the desired properties. As long as the solid lubricants or their reaction products are softer than magnetite, the main constituent of the tribofilm, the model predicts smooth sliding and minimum wear. View Full-Text
Keywords: solid lubricant; friction; automotive braking; tribofilm; third body; sliding simulation; MCA modelling solid lubricant; friction; automotive braking; tribofilm; third body; sliding simulation; MCA modelling

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Österle, W.; Dmitriev, A.I. The Role of Solid Lubricants for Brake Friction Materials. Lubricants 2016, 4, 5.

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