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Open AccessArticle

Influence of ApoE Genotype and Clock T3111C Interaction with Cardiovascular Risk Factors on the Progression to Alzheimer’s Disease in Subjective Cognitive Decline and Mild Cognitive Impairment Patients

1
Department of Neuroscience, Psychology, Drug Research and Child Health-University of Florence–Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence, Italy
2
IRCCS Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi, via di Scandicci 269, 50143 Florence, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Pers. Med. 2020, 10(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm10020045
Received: 11 May 2020 / Revised: 26 May 2020 / Accepted: 27 May 2020 / Published: 29 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Biomarkers in Alzheimer’s Disease)
Background: Some genes could interact with cardiovascular risk factors in the development of Alzheimer’s disease. We aimed to evaluate the interaction between ApoE ε4 status, Clock T3111C and Per2 C111G polymorphisms with cardiovascular profile in Subjective Cognitive Decline (SCD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Methods: We included 68 patients who underwent clinical evaluation; neuropsychological assessment; ApoE, Clock and Per2 genotyping at baseline; and neuropsychological follow-up every 12–24 months for a mean of 13 years. We considered subjects who developed AD and non-converters. Results: Clock T3111C was detected in 47% of cases, Per2 C111G in 19% of cases. ApoE ε4 carriers presented higher risk of heart disease; Clock C-carriers were more frequently smokers than non C-carriers. During the follow-up, 17 patients progressed to AD. Age at baseline, ApoE ε 4 and dyslipidemia increased the risk of conversion to AD. ApoE ε4 carriers with history of dyslipidemia showed higher risk to convert to AD compared to ApoE ε4− groups and ApoE ε4+ without dyslipidemia patients. Clock C-carriers with history of blood hypertension had a higher risk of conversion to AD. Conclusions: ApoE and Clock T3111C seem to interact with cardiovascular risk factors in SCD and MCI patients influencing the progression to AD. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; subjective cognitive decline; mild cognitive impairment; clock genes; Clock; ApoE; cardiovascular risk factors Alzheimer’s disease; subjective cognitive decline; mild cognitive impairment; clock genes; Clock; ApoE; cardiovascular risk factors
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Bessi, V.; Balestrini, J.; Bagnoli, S.; Mazzeo, S.; Giacomucci, G.; Padiglioni, S.; Piaceri, I.; Carraro, M.; Ferrari, C.; Bracco, L.; Sorbi, S.; Nacmias, B. Influence of ApoE Genotype and Clock T3111C Interaction with Cardiovascular Risk Factors on the Progression to Alzheimer’s Disease in Subjective Cognitive Decline and Mild Cognitive Impairment Patients. J. Pers. Med. 2020, 10, 45.

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