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Open AccessArticle

Equilibrium CT Texture Analysis for the Evaluation of Hepatic Fibrosis: Preliminary Evaluation against Histopathology and Extracellular Volume Fraction

Centre for Medical Imaging, University College London, 250 Euston Road, London NW1 2PG, UK
Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University College London, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU, UK
Department of Pathology, Royal Free Hospital, Pond Street, London NW3 2QG, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Pers. Med. 2020, 10(2), 46;
Received: 28 April 2020 / Revised: 19 May 2020 / Accepted: 28 May 2020 / Published: 29 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Imaging and Cancers)
Background: Evaluate equilibrium contrast-enhanced CT (EQ-CT) texture analysis (EQ-CTTA) against histologically-quantified fibrosis, serum-based enhanced liver fibrosis panel (ELF) and imaging-based extracellular volume fraction (ECV) in chronic hepatitis. Methods: This study was a re-analysis of image data from a previous prospective study. Pre- and equilibrium-phase post-IV contrast CT datasets were collected from patients with chronic hepatitis with contemporaneous liver biopsy and serum ELF measurement between April 2011 and July 2013. Biopsy samples were analysed to derive collagen proportionate area (CPA). EQ-CTTA was performed with a filtration histogram technique using texture analysis software, with texture quantification using statistical and histogram-based metrics (mean, skewness, standard deviation, entropy, etc.). Association between pre-contrast and EQ-CTTA against CPA, ECV and ELF was evaluated using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (rs). Results: Complete datasets collected in 29 patients (16 male; 13 female), mean age (range): 49 (22–66 years). Liver ECV, CPA and ELF had a median (interquartile range) of 0.26 (0.24–0.29); 5.0 (3.0–13.7) and 9.71 (8.39–10.92). Difference in segment VII hepatic CTTA (medium texture scale) between EQ-CT and pre-contrast images was significantly and positively associated with ELF score (mean: rs = 0.69, p < 0.001; skewness: rs = 0.57, p = 0.007). Significant negative associations were observed between pre-contrast and EQ-CT whole hepatic CTTA (coarse texture scale) with CPA (pre-contrast, SD: rs = −0.66, p < 0.001) and ECV (EQ-CT, entropy: rs = −0.58, p = 0.006). Conclusions: Hepatic EQ-CTTA demonstrates significant association with validated markers of liver fibrosis, suggesting a role in non-invasive quantification of severity in diffuse fibrosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: liver; CT; cirrhosis; texture; analysis; equilibrium liver; CT; cirrhosis; texture; analysis; equilibrium
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Yeung, J.; Ganeshan, B.; Endozo, R.; Hall, A.; Wan, S.; Groves, A.; Taylor, S.A.; Bandula, S. Equilibrium CT Texture Analysis for the Evaluation of Hepatic Fibrosis: Preliminary Evaluation against Histopathology and Extracellular Volume Fraction. J. Pers. Med. 2020, 10, 46.

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