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Article

Chemical and Phase Reactions on the Contact between Refractory Materials and Slags, a Case from the 19th Century Zn-Pb Smelter in Ruda Śląska, Poland

1
Institute of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Silesia, Będzińska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland
2
Institute of Materials Engineering, and Silesian Center for Education and Interdisciplinary Research, University of Silesia in Katowice, 75 Pulku Piechoty 1A, 41-500 Chorzow, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Minerals 2020, 10(11), 1006; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10111006
Received: 6 October 2020 / Revised: 8 November 2020 / Accepted: 10 November 2020 / Published: 12 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineralogy, Trace Elements and Isotopic Tracers in Archaeometallurgy)
Slags from the historic metallurgy of Zn-Pb ores are known for unique chemical and phase compositions. The oxides, silicates, aluminosilicates, and amorphous phases present therein often contain in the structure elements that are rare in natural conditions, such as Zn, Pb, As. The study focuses on processes occurring on the contact of the melted batch and the refractory materials that build the furnace, which lead to the formation of these phases. To describe them, chemical (X-ray fluorescence (XRF), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)) and petrological ((X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron probe micro-analyses (EPMA), Raman spectroscopy) analyses were performed on refractory material, slag, and contact of both. Two main types of reactions have been distinguished: gas/fluid- refractories and liquid- refractories. The first of them enrich the refractories with elements that migrate with the gas (Pb, K, Na, As, Zn) and transport the components building it (Fe, Mg, Ca) inward. Reactions between melted batch and refractory materials through gravitational differentiation and the melting of refractories lead to the formation of an aluminosilicate liquid with a high content of heavy elements. Cooling of this melt causes crystallization of minerals characteristic for slag, but with a modified composition, such as Fe-rich pyroxenes, Pb-rich K-feldspar, or PbO-As2O3-SiO2 glass. View Full-Text
Keywords: slags; refractory material; zinc; lead; smelting; metallurgy slags; refractory material; zinc; lead; smelting; metallurgy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kupczak, K.; Warchulski, R.; Dulski, M.; Środek, D. Chemical and Phase Reactions on the Contact between Refractory Materials and Slags, a Case from the 19th Century Zn-Pb Smelter in Ruda Śląska, Poland. Minerals 2020, 10, 1006. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10111006

AMA Style

Kupczak K, Warchulski R, Dulski M, Środek D. Chemical and Phase Reactions on the Contact between Refractory Materials and Slags, a Case from the 19th Century Zn-Pb Smelter in Ruda Śląska, Poland. Minerals. 2020; 10(11):1006. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10111006

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kupczak, Krzysztof, Rafał Warchulski, Mateusz Dulski, and Dorota Środek. 2020. "Chemical and Phase Reactions on the Contact between Refractory Materials and Slags, a Case from the 19th Century Zn-Pb Smelter in Ruda Śląska, Poland" Minerals 10, no. 11: 1006. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10111006

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