Background: Brain cortical activity in resting electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings can be considered as measures of latent individual disposition to approach/avoidance behavior. This systematic review aims to provide an updated overview of the relationship between resting EEG cortical activity and approach/avoidance motivation personality traits. Methods: The review process was conducted according to the PRISMA-Statement, using PsycArticles, MEDLINE, Scopus, Science Citation Index, and Research Gate database. Restrictions were made by selecting EEG studies conducted in resting idling conditions, which included approach/avoidance personality traits or parallel measures, and an index of EEG brain activity. In the review 50 studies were selected, wherein 7120 healthy adult individuals participated. Results: The study of the relationship between resting EEG cortical activity and approach/avoidance personality traits provides controversial and unclear results. Therefore, the validity of resting asymmetry or frequency oscillations as a potential marker for approach/avoidance personality traits is not supported. Conclusions: There are important contextual and interactional factors not taken into account by researchers that could mediate or moderate this relationship or prove it scarcely replicable. Further, it would be necessary to conduct more sessions of EEG recordings in different seasons of the year to test the validity and the reliability of the neurobiological measures.
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