# Accurate Age Estimation Using Multi-Task Siamese Network-Based Deep Metric Learning for Frontal Face Images

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

#### 1.1. Motivation

#### 1.2. Contribution

## 2. Proposed Architecture

#### 2.1. Inception V3

#### 2.2. Selection of Two Images and the Feature-Embedding Process

#### 2.3. Distance as Similarity between Two Images

#### 2.4. Loss Function for the Training Comparison Task

#### 2.5. Age Estimation

#### 2.6. Multi-Task Learning for Age and Gender Estimation

## 3. Experimental Results and Discussion

#### 3.1. Toy Example: Visualization of Feature Embedding Computed by Our Method Using a Subset of the MORPH Dataset

#### 3.2. Multi-Task Learning for Age and Gender Estimation

#### 3.3. Comparison with Deep Metric Learning-Based Approaches on the MORPH Dataset

#### 3.4. Comparison with State-of-Art Method on Each Dataset

## 4. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

## Abbreviations

CNN | Convolutional Neural Network |

DEX | Deep EXpectation |

CRCNN | Comparative Region Convolution Neural Network |

MAE | Mean Absolute Error |

CS | Cumulative Score |

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DB Name | The Number of Training Images | The Number of Test Images |
---|---|---|

MegaAge-Asian | 40,000 | 4000 |

MORPH | 45,132 | 10,000 |

Method | Accuracy (%) |
---|---|

Our method without gender data | 81.23 |

Alexnet [5] with gender data | 97.38 |

Inception V3 [7] with gender data | 99.1 |

**Table 3.**Age estimation results on test images of the dataset and a comparison with traditional deep metric learning methods.

Method | Kinds of Loss Function | MORPH(MAE) |
---|---|---|

Our method | Revised contrastive loss function | 2.24 |

Our method with multi-task learning | Revised contrastive loss function | 2.28 |

CRCNN [11] | Contrastive loss function | 3.74 |

M-LSDML [22] | Custom-defined loss function | 2.89 |

ResNet (contrastive loss) [22] | Contrastive loss function | 3.72 |

ResNet (triplet hinge loss) [22] | Triplet hinge loss function | 3.59 |

ResNet (lifted structural loss) [22] | Lifted structural loss function | 3.24 |

**Table 4.**Comparison of $CS\left(T\right)$ with state-of-the-art methods on the MegaAge-Asian dataset (* face alignment method is applied, ** additional labels are used).

Method | $\mathit{CS}\left(3\right)$ | $\mathit{CS}\left(5\right)$ |
---|---|---|

Our method | 69.70 | 84.64 |

MobileNet [23] | 44.0 | 60.6 |

DenseNet [24] | 51.7 | 69.4 |

Zhang et al. [25] ** | 64.08 | 82.43 |

SSR-Net [26] * | 54.9 | 74.1 |

**Table 5.**Comparison of MAE with state-of-the-art methods on the MORPH dataset (* face alignment method is applied, ** additional labels are used).

© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Jeong, Y.; Lee, S.; Park, D.; Park, K.H.
Accurate Age Estimation Using Multi-Task Siamese Network-Based Deep Metric Learning for Frontal Face Images. *Symmetry* **2018**, *10*, 385.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10090385

**AMA Style**

Jeong Y, Lee S, Park D, Park KH.
Accurate Age Estimation Using Multi-Task Siamese Network-Based Deep Metric Learning for Frontal Face Images. *Symmetry*. 2018; 10(9):385.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10090385

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Jeong, Yoosoo, Seungmin Lee, Daejin Park, and Kil Houm Park.
2018. "Accurate Age Estimation Using Multi-Task Siamese Network-Based Deep Metric Learning for Frontal Face Images" *Symmetry* 10, no. 9: 385.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10090385