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Article

Evaluation in Carbon Dioxide Equivalent and CHG Emissions for Water and Energy Management in Water Users Associations. A Case Study in the Southeast of Spain

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Cartography Engineering and Graphic Expression in Engineering Department, Agro-Environmental Economics, Miguel Hernández University of Elche, 03312 Orihuela, Spain
2
Engineering Department, Miguel Hernández University of Elche, 03312 Orihuela, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(12), 3536; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123536
Received: 30 October 2020 / Revised: 4 December 2020 / Accepted: 7 December 2020 / Published: 16 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Economics and Water Distribution Management)
Agriculture is an activity linked to the environment and has a great influence on climate change. As more and more crops are producing in less time, agricultural production is intensified and water consumption and energy demand is increasing. Since the energy consumed is not renewable, greenhouse gases (GHG) are emitted and their concentration in the atmosphere increases. The objective of this article is to apply various methodologies for the precise quantification of the carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-eq) and GHG emissions in the management of irrigation water and energy in ten water user’s associations (WUAs) in the southeast of Spain. All the studied WUAs include irrigation facilities. This paper is based on obtained data in different water and energy audits during 2017. The concept of “irrigation water management” considered in the article covers the process from its extraction through management data to its transport and application to crops through irrigation systems, as well as the reception of water. The way in which water and energy is used to irrigate crops is taken into account. Moreover, the type of energy used for irrigation and at what moment energy is demanded influence the total amount of generated GHG emissions. The tariff periods for electricity and the water needs of the crops planted also has to be taken into account, as well as the economic emissions valuation. View Full-Text
Keywords: GHG emissions; water–energy balance; sustainability; irrigation; global change GHG emissions; water–energy balance; sustainability; irrigation; global change
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MDPI and ACS Style

Melián-Navarro, A.; Ruiz-Canales, A. Evaluation in Carbon Dioxide Equivalent and CHG Emissions for Water and Energy Management in Water Users Associations. A Case Study in the Southeast of Spain. Water 2020, 12, 3536. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123536

AMA Style

Melián-Navarro A, Ruiz-Canales A. Evaluation in Carbon Dioxide Equivalent and CHG Emissions for Water and Energy Management in Water Users Associations. A Case Study in the Southeast of Spain. Water. 2020; 12(12):3536. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123536

Chicago/Turabian Style

Melián-Navarro, Amparo, and Antonio Ruiz-Canales. 2020. "Evaluation in Carbon Dioxide Equivalent and CHG Emissions for Water and Energy Management in Water Users Associations. A Case Study in the Southeast of Spain" Water 12, no. 12: 3536. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123536

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