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A Review of Fouling Mechanisms, Control Strategies and Real-Time Fouling Monitoring Techniques in Forward Osmosis

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School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, 15 Broadway, Ultimo, NSW 2007, Australia
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School of Chemical Engineering, Surrey University, Guildford GU2 7XH, Surrey, UK
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Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, Qatar University, P.O. Box 2713 Doha, Qatar
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Department of Chemical Engineering Technology, College of Technological Studies, The Public Authority for Applied Education and Training (PAAET), P.O. Box 117, Sabah AlSalem 44010, Kuwait
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(4), 695; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040695
Received: 20 February 2019 / Revised: 31 March 2019 / Accepted: 2 April 2019 / Published: 4 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Forward Osmotic Process for Seawater and Wastewater Treatment)
Forward osmosis has gained tremendous attention in the field of desalination and wastewater treatment. However, membrane fouling is an inevitable issue. Membrane fouling leads to flux decline, can cause operational problems and can result in negative consequences that can damage the membrane. Hereby, we attempt to review the different types of fouling in forward osmosis, cleaning and control strategies for fouling mitigation, and the impact of membrane hydrophilicity, charge and morphology on fouling. The fundamentals of biofouling, organic, colloidal and inorganic fouling are discussed with a focus on recent studies. We also review some of the in-situ real-time online fouling monitoring technologies for real-time fouling monitoring that can be applicable to future research on forward osmosis fouling studies. A brief discussion on critical flux and the coupled effects of fouling and concentration polarization is also provided. View Full-Text
Keywords: forward osmosis; membrane; fouling; filtration; fouling mitigation forward osmosis; membrane; fouling; filtration; fouling mitigation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ibrar, I.; Naji, O.; Sharif, A.; Malekizadeh, A.; Alhawari, A.; Alanezi, A.A.; Altaee, A. A Review of Fouling Mechanisms, Control Strategies and Real-Time Fouling Monitoring Techniques in Forward Osmosis. Water 2019, 11, 695.

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