Next Article in Journal
Dewatering Characteristics and Inflow Prediction of Deep Foundation Pits with Partial Penetrating Curtains in Sand and Gravel Strata
Next Article in Special Issue
Hazard Assessment Based on the Combination of DAN3D and Machine Learning Method for Planning Closed-Type Barriers against Debris-Flow
Previous Article in Journal
Critical Factors for the Success of Rural Water Supply Services in Brazil
Article

Development of Nomogram for Debris Flow Forecasting Based on Critical Accumulated Rainfall in South Korea

Department of Urban Environment & Disaster Management, School of Disaster Prevention, Kangwon National University, 346 Joongang-ro, Samcheok-si Gangwon-do 25913, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(10), 2181; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102181
Received: 16 September 2019 / Revised: 4 October 2019 / Accepted: 16 October 2019 / Published: 19 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Debris Flows Research: Hazard and Risk Assessments)
Climate change causes extreme weather events worldwide such as increasing temperatures and changing rainfall patterns. With South Korea facing growing damage from the increased frequency of localized heavy rains. In particular, its steep slope lands, including mountainous areas, are vulnerable to damage from landslides and debris flows. In addition, localized short-term heavy rains that occur in urban areas with extremely high intensity tend to lead a sharp increase in damage from soil-related disasters and cause huge losses of life and property. Currently, South Korea forecasts landslides and debris flows using the standards for forecasting landslides and heavy rains. However, as the forecasting is conducted separately for rainfall intensity and accumulated rainfall, this lacks a technique that reflects both amount and intensity of rainfall in an episode of localized heavy rainfall. In this study, aims to develop such a technique by collecting past cases of debris flow occurrences and rainfall events that accompanied debris flows to calculate the rainfall triggering index (RTI) reflecting accumulated rainfall and rainfall intensity. In addition, the RTI is converted into the critical accumulated rainfall ( R c ) to use rainfall information and provide real-time forecasting. The study classifies the standards for flow debris forecasting into three levels: ALERT (10–50%), WARNING (50–70%), and EMERGENCY (70% or higher), to provide a nomogram for 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h. As a result of applying this classification into the actual cases of Seoul, Chuncheon, and Cheongju, it is found that about 2–4 h of response time is secured from the point of the Emergency level to the occurrence of debris flows. View Full-Text
Keywords: rainfall intensity; debris flow forecasting; rainfall triggering index (RTI); critical accumulated rainfall (Rc); nomogram rainfall intensity; debris flow forecasting; rainfall triggering index (RTI); critical accumulated rainfall (Rc); nomogram
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Nam, D.-H.; Lee, S.-H.; Kim, B.-S. Development of Nomogram for Debris Flow Forecasting Based on Critical Accumulated Rainfall in South Korea. Water 2019, 11, 2181. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102181

AMA Style

Nam D-H, Lee S-H, Kim B-S. Development of Nomogram for Debris Flow Forecasting Based on Critical Accumulated Rainfall in South Korea. Water. 2019; 11(10):2181. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102181

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nam, Dong-Ho, Suk-Ho Lee, and Byung-Sik Kim. 2019. "Development of Nomogram for Debris Flow Forecasting Based on Critical Accumulated Rainfall in South Korea" Water 11, no. 10: 2181. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102181

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop