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Seasonal and Annual Rainfall Variability and Their Impact on Rural Water Supply Services in the Wami River Basin, Tanzania

1
United Nations University Institute for Integrated Management of Material Fluxes and of Resources (UNU-FLORES), Ammonstrasse 74, 01067 Dresden, Germany
2
Institute for Cartography, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(10), 2055; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102055
Received: 16 August 2019 / Revised: 27 September 2019 / Accepted: 28 September 2019 / Published: 1 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Water Use and Scarcity)
In some parts of Africa, rainfall variability has resulted in widespread droughts and floods, thus posing a substantial challenge to water availability in rural areas, especially drinking water. Therefore, due to increasing water demands, increases in the population, and economic development, water supply systems are under constant stress. One of the critical uncertainties surrounding the effects of rainfall variability in Africa is the significant impact that it imposes on rural water supply services. The present study analyzes the trends in annual and seasonal rainfall time series in the Wami River Basin to see if there have been any significant changes in the patterns during the period 1983–2017 and how they affect the access to water supply services in rural areas. The study analyzes the trends of rainfall series of three stations using simple regression, Mann–Kendal Test and Sen’s Slope Estimator. The water point mapping datasets were analyzed considering seasonal variation. The analysis showed a statistically significant positive trend in annual rainfall at Kongwa and March–April–May (MAM) seasonal rainfall at Dakawa. The maximum increase in annual rainfall occurred at Kongwa (5.3 mm year−1) and for MAM seasonal data at Dakawa (4.1 mm year−1). Water points were found to be significantly affected by seasonal changes, both in terms of availability and quality of water. There also exists a strong relationship between rural water services and seasons. View Full-Text
Keywords: Wami River Basin; rural water supply; water points; water point mapping; time-series data Wami River Basin; rural water supply; water points; water point mapping; time-series data
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Twisa, S.; Buchroithner, M.F. Seasonal and Annual Rainfall Variability and Their Impact on Rural Water Supply Services in the Wami River Basin, Tanzania. Water 2019, 11, 2055.

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