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Open AccessArticle

Evaluating the Road-Bioretention Strip System from a Hydraulic Perspective—Case Studies

1
Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849-5337, USA
2
Key Laboratory of Urban Stormwater System and Water Environment, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Beijing 100044, China
3
College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, No. 1 Xikang Road, Nanjing 210098, China
4
School of Planning, Design and Construction, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2018, 10(12), 1778; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10121778
Received: 17 October 2018 / Revised: 16 November 2018 / Accepted: 29 November 2018 / Published: 4 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Water Management)
The two-dimensional overland flow simulation program, FullSWOF_2D, was revised to include submodules of determining infiltration by zones (Z) and grate-inlet (G) drainage from a 2D surface to a 1D pipe flow. The updated program, FullSWOF-ZG, was used to evaluate the performance of a road-bioretention strip (RBS) system and explore/understand key parameters of continuous RBS design. The program was validated using eight pervious surfaces under simulated rainfall events and tested with 20 experimental cases of a locally depressed curb inlet. The mean difference of simulated interception efficiencies (36.6%–86.0%) and observed interception efficiencies (34.8%–84.0%) of the curb inlet was 3.5%, which proves the program predicts the curb-inlet interception efficiency accurately. The 20 road-only and 20 RBS modeling cases were designed and modeled using the FullSWOF-ZG program. These case studies have different road lengths, curb inlet lengths, longitudinal slopes, cross slopes, bioretention-overflow inlet heights, and bioretention soil infiltration parameters. Only 34.6%–48.4% of the total runoff volume is intercepted by the RBS’s curb inlet under heavy rainfall (250 mm/h) and the remaining part of the runoff flows downstream along the road, which may cause local inundation and become a safety hazard. The curb inlet becomes the bottleneck of the RBS system that could impede the runoff flowing into the bioretention strip for detention and infiltration to improve the stormwater quality. View Full-Text
Keywords: road-bioretention strip; hydraulic design calculation; curb inlet; FullSWOF_2D; sponge city paradigm; low impact development; stormwater management road-bioretention strip; hydraulic design calculation; curb inlet; FullSWOF_2D; sponge city paradigm; low impact development; stormwater management
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Li, X.; Fang, X.; Gong, Y.; Li, J.; Wang, J.; Chen, G.; Li, M.-H. Evaluating the Road-Bioretention Strip System from a Hydraulic Perspective—Case Studies. Water 2018, 10, 1778.

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