Next Article in Journal
Changes of Soil C Stock under Establishment and Abandonment of Arable Lands in Permafrost Area—Central Yakutia
Next Article in Special Issue
Impact of Air Mass Conditions and Aerosol Properties on Ice Nucleating Particle Concentrations at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch
Previous Article in Journal
Correction: Bärfuss et al. New Setup of the UAS ALADINA for Measuring Boundary Layer Properties, Atmospheric Particles and Solar Radiation. Atmosphere, 2018, 9, 28
Previous Article in Special Issue
Compositional and Mineralogical Effects on Ice Nucleation Activity of Volcanic Ash
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Atmosphere 2018, 9(8), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9080307

Abundance of Biological Ice Nucleating Particles in the Mississippi and Its Major Tributaries

1
Ocean Lab, The Parrog, Fishguard Harbour, Wales SA64 0ED, UK
2
Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 July 2018 / Revised: 30 July 2018 / Accepted: 3 August 2018 / Published: 7 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ice Nucleation in the Atmosphere)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1969 KB, uploaded 7 August 2018]   |  

Abstract

Ice nucleating particles (INPs) are rare among atmospheric aerosols. However, through their ability to induce freezing of cloud droplets in cold clouds, they affect cloud lifetime, cloud albedo, and the efficiency and distribution of precipitation. While terrestrial sources of INPs are the focus of much research, the potential of rivers and lakes to be significant INP reservoirs has been neglected. In the first survey of a major river system, surface waters from the Mississippi, Missouri, Platte, and Sweetwater Rivers, all draining east and south from the Great Divide in the United States of America (USA), were tested for their INP concentrations. The survey comprised 49 samples, taken approximately every 150–250 km along 90% of the Mississippi (from Natchez, MS to the source at Bemidji, MN), the full length of the Missouri, 90% of the North Platte, and all of the Sweetwater. Samples were analysed using the immersion freezing method. The highest freezing temperature varied between −4 and −6 °C, and the concentration of INPs active at −10 °C or warmer ranged from 87 to 47,000 mL−1. The average INP concentration at −10 °C was 4950 mL−1, almost four orders of magnitude greater than the numbers of INPs typically found active at this temperature in seawater. The majority of INPs (69 to >99%) were heat labile (deactivated by heating to 95 °C) and therefore likely to be biological. Although the surface area of rivers is limited, their significant concentrations of INPs suggest that freshwater emissions should be investigated for their potential impact on regional cloud processes. View Full-Text
Keywords: ice nucleating particles; Mississippi; Missouri; Platte; rivers; freshwater; regional atmospheric dynamics ice nucleating particles; Mississippi; Missouri; Platte; rivers; freshwater; regional atmospheric dynamics
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Moffett, B.F.; Hill, T.C.J.; DeMott, P.J. Abundance of Biological Ice Nucleating Particles in the Mississippi and Its Major Tributaries. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 307.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Atmosphere EISSN 2073-4433 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top