Chemical Composition and Sources of Marine Aerosol over the Western North Pacific Ocean in Winter
AbstractAtmospheric deposition of long-range transported continental substances from natural and anthropogenic sources affects biogeochemical processes in marine systems. Emissions of sea spray contribute aerosol particles to the marine atmosphere. Despite the importance of continental dispersion and atmospheric processes involving aerosol particles within remote marine atmosphere, knowledge of the sources of various water-soluble ions is limited because of insufficient observations. Concentrations of Total suspended particulates (TSPs) and major inorganic ions (Cl−, Na+, SO42−, Mg2+, Ca2+, K+, NO3−, NH4+), as well as organic nitrogen (ON-N) values, were measured in marine aerosol collected over the western north Pacific (WNP) during a cruise from 3 December 2014 to 13 March 2015. Aerosol samples were analyzed to determine their chemical characteristics and a source apportionment for this region and the continental influence on the open ocean when air masses are from continent in winter. TSP mass concentrations ranged from 14.1 to 136.0 μg/m3 with an average of 44.8 ± 28.1 μg/m3. Concentrations of TSPs and major ions were higher near the coast (close to Qingdao and Xiamen) and lower over the open ocean. The total mass of inorganic ions and organic nitrogen accounted for 51.1% of the total TSP. Cl− had highest concentrations among the major inorganic ions, followed by SO42−, NO3−, Mg2+, Ca2+, K+, and NH4+, respectively. However, Cl− showed a deficit relative to Na+ in most samples, likely related to heterogeneous reactions within the marine atmosphere. Most SO42−, Mg2+, Ca2+, and K+ were from sea salt, while other major ions were from continental sources. The non-sea-salt (nss) fractions of Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+ were derived from continental crust, while nss-SO42− and NO3− were derived from anthropogenic sources. ON had several sources, including reactions of NOx with volatile organic compounds (anthropogenic sources) or NH3 with gaseous hydrocarbons, as well as crustal and marine biogenic sources. View Full-Text
- Supplementary File 1:
ZIP-Document (ZIP, 26212 KB)
Share & Cite This Article
Xiao, H.-W.; Xiao, H.-Y.; Shen, C.-Y.; Zhang, Z.-Y.; Long, A.-M. Chemical Composition and Sources of Marine Aerosol over the Western North Pacific Ocean in Winter. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 298.
Xiao H-W, Xiao H-Y, Shen C-Y, Zhang Z-Y, Long A-M. Chemical Composition and Sources of Marine Aerosol over the Western North Pacific Ocean in Winter. Atmosphere. 2018; 9(8):298.Chicago/Turabian Style
Xiao, Hong-Wei; Xiao, Hua-Yun; Shen, Chun-Yan; Zhang, Zhong-Yi; Long, Ai-Min. 2018. "Chemical Composition and Sources of Marine Aerosol over the Western North Pacific Ocean in Winter." Atmosphere 9, no. 8: 298.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.