Next Article in Journal
Effects of Atmospheric Dry Deposition on External Nitrogen Supply and New Production in the Northern South China Sea
Previous Article in Journal
Polar Cooling Effect Due to Increase of Phytoplankton and Dimethyl-Sulfide Emission
Previous Article in Special Issue
Quantifying the Effect of Different Urban Planning Strategies on Heat Stress for Current and Future Climates in the Agglomeration of The Hague (The Netherlands)
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Atmosphere 2018, 9(10), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9100385

Climate Change and Water-Related Infectious Diseases

1
Centre for Radiation Chemicals and Environmental Hazards, Public Health England, Chilton, Oxon OX11 0RQ, UK
2
European Centre for Environment and Human Health, University of Exeter Medical School, C/O Knowledge Spa RCHT, Truro, Cornwall TR1 3HD, UK
3
School of Environmental Sciences, UEA, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK
4
School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
5
Department of Social and Environmental Health Research, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 15-17 Tavistock Place, London WC1H 9SH, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 2 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health)
Full-Text   |   PDF [790 KB, uploaded 10 October 2018]

Abstract

Background: Water-related, including waterborne, diseases remain important sources of morbidity and mortality worldwide, but particularly in developing countries. The potential for changes in disease associated with predicted anthropogenic climate changes make water-related diseases a target for prevention. Methods: We provide an overview of evidence on potential future changes in water-related disease associated with climate change. Results: A number of pathogens are likely to present risks to public health, including cholera, typhoid, dysentery, leptospirosis, diarrhoeal diseases and harmful algal blooms (HABS). The risks are greatest where the climate effects drive population movements, conflict and disruption, and where drinking water supply infrastructure is poor. The quality of evidence for water-related disease has been documented. Conclusions: We highlight the need to maintain and develop timely surveillance and rapid epidemiological responses to outbreaks and emergence of new waterborne pathogens in all countries. While the main burden of waterborne diseases is in developing countries, there needs to be both technical and financial mechanisms to ensure adequate quantities of good quality water, sewage disposal and hygiene for all. This will be essential in preventing excess morbidity and mortality in areas that will suffer from substantial changes in climate in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: climate change; waterborne disease; natural environment; risks; public health; cryptosporidiosis; cholera; leptospirosis; Legionnaires’ disease climate change; waterborne disease; natural environment; risks; public health; cryptosporidiosis; cholera; leptospirosis; Legionnaires’ disease
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Nichols, G.; Lake, I.; Heaviside, C. Climate Change and Water-Related Infectious Diseases. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 385.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Atmosphere EISSN 2073-4433 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top